Implementing Task-Based Language Teaching to Integrate Language Skills in an ESL Program

 

Many researchers have presented the Benefits of incorporating language abilities in English language teaching. They are of the point view that learning English is more effective when students learn the four abilities in one session where the learners will probably utilize the language in their daily lives. TBLT provides opportunities to practice speaking, reading, listening, and writing via purposeful jobs that involve learners in practical and operational utilization of l2. Consequently, TBLT boosts and promotes the integration of skills by finishing daily-life activities that enhance students' communicative competence because it provides learners the prospect of practicing the target language consistently. The students get as an chance to explore active course exercises that bring up real life communication where they solve problems and carry out creative pursuits.

The characteristics of TBLT mentioned Above indicate that this methodology promotes actual language use which facilitates the integration of their speech skills successfully. Nunan (1999) says that TBLT requires listening, speaking, reading, and writing in the same exercise to complete the problem given in the endeavor. The use of this method in course generally brings real-life work that allows the practice of all the language skills. The students get a chance to explore different communicative situations inside and beyond the classroom, which promote the custom of terminology by carrying out tasks that are closely related to the regular life. Nunan (2005) also claims that TBLT is a strategy that produces language abilities integration. It helps students comprehend, create, manipulate, or interact in the classroom.

Tasks in Language Learning

In English language learning, tasks are considered as an Important component to attain proficiency and to facilitate the learning of a foreign or second language by raising students' activity in the classroom. This way, a task aims at stimulating a natural desire in learners to maximize their language proficiency by giving them a struggle to complete clear, purposeful, and real life tasks that speed up the learning of grammar and the language abilities. Such tasks require the teacher to set the prerequisites for successful conclusion, define the goals of the task, and provide different classroom practices which don't take place in an English class in a usual circumstance.

Task Implementation

The process to implement TBLT in English courses has been Highly discussed among various language theorists. They emphasize that there are three major actions to do a task. First is that the "pre-task point" where the teacher introduces the topic and provides the directions such as the articles, the objectives for every one of the measures within the endeavor, and the way to present it. Referring to this stage, Littlewood (2004) suggest that this stage creates an overview of what the students will need to understand to accomplish all of the demands of the assignment. Additionally, Skehan (1998) suggests that this stage is an overview or introduction about all of the rules learners need to follow to finish the jobs correctly. Often, this phase of job development can be used to pick the topic of the endeavor, plan the way the pupils will exhibit their job, or to think about the standards to assess the outcomes of the task and also to determine actions to be taken regarding the performance of the students.

Ellis (2006) suggests the "during Task" stage as the following step; he says two basic things should be done. First of all, the analysis ought to be made of the way the endeavor is going to be developed, and secondly, the analysis of the means by which the job will possibly be completed. Seedhouse (1999) says it is necessary to direct the students while they are doing the job, ask the students to demonstrate their progress on what they are studying, composing, what videos they are listening to, or check if they're listening to what has been provided to the mind as a final stage, provide meaningful feedback to them. Numrich (1996) and Junker (1960) add that, at this level, learners have to be amenable to make modifications to their reports and presentations. At this stage, the students negotiate among themselves to answer questions in the teacher and members of the group, review articles, and reset those areas that need to be improved upon to submit their report.

The final moment are the "post-task" stage. Lynch (2001) affirms this moment requires the analysis and edition of the observations, opinions, and recommendations from this team and the teacher about the operation of learners in the job outcomes. In regard to this stage, Ellis (2014) considers that after the students have conducted the job it's crucial to reassess their mistakes; this can be done by asking the whole group about the operation of their classmates, checking the instructor's notes, or asking students to self-evaluate their demonstrations. Another important action to consider is to invite students to enhance the probable mistakes and to assign follow-up activities. In addition, Willis (1996) comments that this stage motivates learners to automatize their production, make conclusions about the outcomes of the endeavor, and assess which strategy to follow to ensure progress in the language.

Integration of Language Skills

Some current research on teaching English language associates the integration of the four skills with an advancement in the target language. Wallace, Stariha, and Walberg (2004) suggest that the integration of language skills provides natural scenarios in which listening, talking, reading, and writing are developed in one class to enhance English learning. As seen in this perspective, this manner of instructing favors l2 learning since pupils are trained to use the language effectively, in various contexts, purposes, as well as instances. Nunan (1999) also supports this idea by stating that the integration of language skills is essential to develop a genuine communicative competence and improve learners' language proficiency by engaging in linguistic and communicative actions that promote authentic language use.

Dickinson (2010) who state that incorporating language skills eases the development of linguistic (such as grammatical proficiency ) and communicative abilities. Specifically, TBLT provides English courses an emphasis on the integration of their language abilities by providing students with much more exploration and training in every one of the abilities.

In short, the implementation of Task-based language instruction facilitates the integration of the four skills in the English as a foreign language. It can be concluded that task-based language Teaching is a good strategy to be utilized in the marketing of skills integration and language competence

Future Tense

 There is no future tense in English as such but there is a range of tenses and

phrases to present future.

These are:

Future Simple:

It is usually formed with the modal verb ‘will’.

To express a future intention e.g. ‘I will visit the office tomorrow’.

To express prediction e.g. ‘He will have bad consequences if he cheats like that’.

To express a sudden decision e.g. ‘I know, I will get a take away’.


Other Related Links:

Conditional Sentences

Preposition and its Types 

Adverb with Examples

Verbs with examples

Adjectives and its Types with Examples

Pronoun and its Types

Noun and its Types

Past Perfect Continuous Tense

Past Perfect Tense

Past Continuous Tense

Past Simple Tense

Present Perfect Continuous

Present Perfect Tense

Present Continuous Tense

Present Simple Tense 

 

Past Perfect Continuous Tense

  Past Perfect Continuous Tense presents an action that started in the past and continued up to the some duration or point of time in the past. This tense also tells the duration and the point of time that the action had been taking place. 

Basic Structure

Subject + had + been + Verb (present participle) + Object

I               had           been        reading      a  book   since morning.


Positive Sentence

I had been playing cricket for two hours.

Negative Sentence

He had not been working since 4 pm.

Interrogative Sentence

Had you been working in that office for several years?

Negative Interrogative Sentence

Had they not been residing there since 2001?


Note: 

1- 'Since' is used for specific point of time like (1990, morning, 5 am) whereas "For' is used for duration of time like (2 hours, 3 days, several)


Past Perfect Continuous Tense













Other Related Links:

Conditional Sentences

Preposition and its Types 

Adverb with Examples

Verbs with examples

Adjectives and its Types with Examples

Pronoun and its Types

Noun and its Types

Past Perfect Continuous Tense

Past Perfect Tense

Past Continuous Tense

Past Simple Tense

Present Perfect Continuous

Present Perfect Tense

Present Continuous Tense

Present Simple Tense 

 

Past Perfect Tense

 Past Perfect Tense presents an action that happened in the past and completed before another action in the past e.g. 'The patient had died before the doctor came'. 

Basic Structure

Subject + had + Verb (past participle) + Object

I                had                   done                   my work.


Positive Sentence

She had planned her lesson.

Negative Sentence

He had written a letter to his friend.

Interrogative Sentence

Had you taken your breakfast?

Negative Interrogative Sentence

Had they passed the test?


Past Perfect Tense













Other Related Links:

Conditional Sentences

Preposition and its Types 

Adverb with Examples

Verbs with examples

Adjectives and its Types with Examples

Pronoun and its Types

Noun and its Types

Past Perfect Continuous Tense

Past Perfect Tense

Past Continuous Tense

Past Simple Tense

Present Perfect Continuous

Present Perfect Tense

Present Continuous Tense

Present Simple Tense 

 

Past Continuous Tense

 Present Continuous Tense is used to present an action that started in the past and continued for a short duration of time.

Basic Structure

Subject + was/were + Verb (present participle) + Object

I                was                    playing                          table tennis.


Positive Sentence

I was going to market.

She was playing tennis at when I saw her.

Negative Sentence

He was not listening to me.

Interrogative Sentence

Were you watching movie on television?

Negative Interrogative Sentence

Were they not going to park?


Note: 

1- 'were' is used for  We, They, You and plural nouns. 'Was' is used for I, she, he, it and singular nouns.


Past Continuous Tense













Other Related Links:

Conditional Sentences

Preposition and its Types 

Adverb with Examples

Verbs with examples

Adjectives and its Types with Examples

Pronoun and its Types

Noun and its Types

Past Perfect Continuous Tense

Past Perfect Tense

Past Continuous Tense

Past Simple Tense

Present Perfect Continuous

Present Perfect Tense

Present Continuous Tense

Present Simple Tense 

 

Past Simple Tense

 Past Simple Tense is also called Past Indefinite Tense. It is usually used to present action that happened in the past usually for a short period of time.

Basic Structure

Subject + Verb (past form) + Object

I                   played                  table tennis.


Positive Sentence

She visited my office last week. 

Negative Sentence

He did not read the book.

Interrogative Sentence

Did you write a letter?

Negative Interrogative Sentence

Did they not win the competition?


Past Simple













Worksheet Past Simple Tense 

1- He ---------- food five minute before. (eat, ate, eating)

2-  ----------- she play football yesterday? (did, do, does)

3- They ----------- with each other two days before. (fight, fought, fighting)

4- We ---------- cricket last day. (play, played, playing)

5- Did you --------- mangoes last Sunday? (ate, eaten, eating)

6- Kids did not -------- hands before eating. (wash, washed, washing)

7- Those boys --------- 1st position in previous examinations. (get, got, got)

8- Teacher --------- students the same topic yesterday. (teach, taught, teaching)

9- She --------- book from her bag two minutes before. (find, found, finding)

10- He ---------- from the public office last year. (resign, resigned, resigning)


Worksheet Past Simple Tense



Other Related Links:

Conditional Sentences

Preposition and its Types 

Adverb with Examples

Verbs with examples

Adjectives and its Types with Examples

Pronoun and its Types

Noun and its Types

Past Perfect Continuous Tense

Past Perfect Tense

Past Continuous Tense

Past Simple Tense

Present Perfect Continuous

Present Perfect Tense

Present Continuous Tense

Present Simple Tense 

 

Present Perfect Continuous

  Present Perfect Continuous Tense (also called present perfect progressive) presents an action that started in the past and continued up to the present. This tense also tells the duration and the point of time that the action has been taking place. 

Basic Structure

Subject + has/have + been + Verb (present participle) + Object

I                have           been        reading                          a  book   since morning.


Positive Sentence

I have been playing cricket for two hours.

Negative Sentence

He has not been working since 4 pm.

Interrogative Sentence

Have you been working in this office for several years?

Negative Interrogative Sentence

Have they not been residing here since 2008?


Note: 

1- 'Have' is used for  I, We, They, You and plural nouns whereas 'Has' is used for she, he, it and singular nouns. 

2- 'Since' is used for specific point of time like (1990, morning, 5 am) whereas "For' is used for duration of time like (2 hours, 3 days, several)


Present Perfect Tense













Other Related Links:

Conditional Sentences

Preposition and its Types 

Adverb with Examples

Verbs with examples

Adjectives and its Types with Examples

Pronoun and its Types

Noun and its Types

Past Perfect Continuous Tense

Past Perfect Tense

Past Continuous Tense

Past Simple Tense

Present Perfect Continuous

Present Perfect Tense

Present Continuous Tense

Present Simple Tense 

 

Present Perfect Tense

 Present Perfect Tense presents an action that started in the near past but ended in the present.

Basic Structure

Subject + has/have + Verb (past participle) + Object

I                have                   read                          a new book.


Positive Sentence

She has planned her lesson.

Negative Sentence

He has written a letter to his friend.

Interrogative Sentence

Have you taken your breakfast?

Negative Interrogative Sentence

Have they passed the test?


Note: 

1- 'Have' is used for  I, We, They, You and plural nouns whereas 'Has' is used for she, he, it and singular nouns. 


Present Perfect Tense













Present Perfect Tense Worksheet

1- He --------------- completed his work. (has, have)

2- They have ------------ the match. (won, win)

3- I -------------- passed the exam recently. (have, has)

4- ----------- you done your home work? (have, has)

5- We have --------------- message to him. (sent, send)


Other Related Links:

Conditional Sentences

Preposition and its Types 

Adverb with Examples

Verbs with examples

Adjectives and its Types with Examples

Pronoun and its Types

Noun and its Types

Past Perfect Continuous Tense

Past Perfect Tense

Past Continuous Tense

Past Simple Tense

Present Perfect Continuous

Present Perfect Tense

Present Continuous Tense

Present Simple Tense 

 

Present Continuous Tense

Present Continuous Tense is also called Present Progressive Tense. It is usually used to present an ongoing action happening right now or at the moment of speech.

Basic Structure

Subject + is/are/am + Verb (present participle) + Object

I                am                    playing                          table tennis


Positive Sentence

I am going to market right now.

She is playing tennis at the moment.

Negative Sentence

He is not listening to me.

Interrogative Sentence

Are you watching movie on television?

Negative Interrogative Sentence

Are they not going to park?


Note: 

1- 'Are' is used for  We, They, You and plural nouns. 'Is' is used for she, he, it and singular nouns whereas 'am' is used for I.


Present Continuous Tense













Present Continuous Tense Worksheet

1- Where ---------- going right now? (is, was, are)

2- I ---------- making a plan for my study preparation at the moment. (are, am, is)

3- They ---------- doing practice for the coming match now a days. (does, are, is)

4- We are ---------- funds for the charity school. (collect, collected, collecting)

5- Who ---------- knocking at door consistently? (is, are, does)

6- The doctor ---------- examining the patient at the moment. (are, am, is)

7- You ---------- not abiding by the rules. (was, are, is)

8- ---------- she preparing meal for children right now? (do, are, is)

9- John and David ---------- playing together in the playground. (are, is, am)

10- What ---------- you doing now a days? (am, are, was)



Present Continuous Tense Worksheet





















Other Related Links:

Conditional Sentences

Preposition and its Types 

Adverb with Examples

Verbs with examples

Adjectives and its Types with Examples

Pronoun and its Types

Noun and its Types

Past Perfect Continuous Tense

Past Perfect Tense

Past Continuous Tense

Past Simple Tense

Present Perfect Continuous

Present Perfect Tense

Present Continuous Tense

Present Simple Tense 

 

Present Simple Tense

Present Simple is also called Present Indefinite. It is usually used to present action happening right now or daily routines and habits.

Basic Structure

Subject + Verb (present form) + Object

I                   play                          table tennis


Positive Sentence

I go to market on Sunday.

She goes for a walk daily

Negative Sentence

He does not read a book.

Interrogative Sentence

Do you like gardening?

Negative Interrogative Sentence

Do they not play on Sundays?


Note: 

1- 'Do' is used for I, We, They, You and plural nouns. 'Does' is used for she, he, it and singular nouns.

2-  If there is she, he, it and singular nouns as a subject, there will be addition of 's' or 'es' in the verb.

While if there is I, We, They, You and plural nouns as a subject, there will be no addition of 's' or 'es' in the verb.

3- 'es' is added in the verbs ending with o, x, ss, ch and sh.


Worksheet Present Simple

 Fill in the Blanks with the suitable word.

1- I ------------ not like junk foods. (do/does)

2- He ------------ cricket on Sundays. (play/plays)

3- -------------- they always obey the rules? (do/does)

4- She never -------------- a lie. (tell/tells)

5- We always --------------- the truth. (speak/speaks)

6- He ---------- not attend clients on weekdays. (do/does)

7- The sun ------------- in the East. (rise/rises)

8- ------------- you always help others?(do/does)

9- Waseem often -------------- my office. (Visit/visits)

10- Ali and Ahmad ------------ for a walk together.      (go/goes) 


Worksheet Present Simple Tense








Lesson Plan for Asking Directions

 

Objective

By the end of the lesson learners will be able to ask directions.

 

Time

Stage

Interaction

Procedure

10

Warmer

 

Whole Class

Mingling: (cut ups carrying questions about asking directions of different pictures of buildings pasted on the wall)

1- Give cut ups to whole class.

2- Ask them to mingle with each other and ask directions. (one question from one student)

3- Share the answers with the whole class.

 

10

PRESENTATION

Set the context

for the target language

 

Pair Work

1- In pairs, give students a map on which different buildings are shown.

2- Ask them some questions about the location of different buildings on the map.

10

Check Meaning

 

Teacher-Students

Tell the students 

Say “Excuse me” before you ask a person. To make it sound like a question, make your voice go up on “me”.

Write the following sentences on the board:

 

“Excuse me. How do I get to (the railway station) please?”

 

“Excuse me. Where’s the nearest (post office) please?”

 

“Excuse me. I’m looking for the Number 6 bus stop.”

 

 

10

Model and Drilling

 

Teacher-Students

 

(Choral and individual)

Model and drill above given questions.

Excuse me. How do I get to (the railway station) please?”

 

“Excuse me. Where’s the nearest (post office) please?”

 

“Excuse me. I’m looking for the Number 6 bus stop.”

10

Practice

 

Group Work

Students will work in pair and label the names of the different places given on the map by asking direction from each other in turn. (They will be provided both labelled and unlabeled maps)

10

Production

 

Pair Work

Students will work in pairs and will ask directions of pictures pasted on the wall from each other on their own without using cut ups.



Other Related Links:

Lesson Plan for Conjunction

Lesson Plan for Kinds of Adjectives

Lesson Plan for Noun, Common Noun and Proper Noun

Lesson Plan for Asking Directions

Lesson Plan for Asking Questions in Simple Present

Lesson Plan for Common and Proper Noun

Lesson Plan Template

 




Lesson Plan for Asking Questions in Simple Present

 

 

Objectives

By the end of the lesson learners will be able to

1- make yes/no questions

2- make questions in simple present tense.

3- express their daily routines in simple present tense.

 

Subject: English

  

Class: Four            

 

Time: 60 mins

 

Strength: 40

 

Time

(minutes)

Stage

Interaction

Procedure

7

Warmer

 

Whole Class

Mingling: (cut ups carrying questions about daily routines) Appendix 1

1- Give cut ups to whole class

2- Ask them to mingle with each other and ask questions (one question from one student).

3- Share the answers with the whole class.

 

8

PRESENTATION

Set the context

for the target language

 

Pair Work

1- In pairs, give students cut ups on which daily routines of a person are written.

2- Ask them some questions in present simple about that person.

(Appendix 2)

10

Eliciting Target Language

 

Group Work

1- Make groups of three and select one writer and two runners.

2- Paste different verbs on the wall.

3- Ask runner from each group (one at a time) to find the verbs from the wall and make a question using that word and dictate to the writer.

4- Group which completes first will be the winner.

5- Share questions with the whole class.

 

5

Check Meaning

 

Techer-students

Tell the students if the subject is he, she, it & one name then we use Does & it the subject is I,We, they,you and more than one name then we use Do.

Write the following sentences on the board:

1- Do/Does you like mangoes?

2- Do/Does she work in a shop?

3- Do/Does Ali live in Lahore?

4- Do/Does they play cricket?

Ask students to select do/does for each sentence.

 

 

 

 

 

5

Model and Drilling

 

Techer-students

Model and drill some questions.

Do you like mangoes?

Does she play tennis?

5

Focus on form

 

Techer-students

Write the sentences you modeled and drilled and highlight the form

Do/Does+Subject+verb+object+?

Do you like mangoes?

Does she play tennis?

5

Highlight the pronunciation

 

Techer-students

Note that Do or Does are stressed.

Do you like mangoes?

Does she play tennis?

10

Practice

 

Team Work

Board Race:

1- Divide class into two teams.

2- Allocate half of the board to one team and half of the board to the other team.

3- Make two lines in front of board.

4- Both Teams will write questions in simple present on the board for two minutes.

5- The team which writes more sentences will be the winner.

5

Production

 

individual

Students will write some questions on their own by looking at their daily routine using verbs of watch, eat, play and speak 2 sentences of yes / no with correct pronunciation.

 

 

Appendix 1

Do you get up early in the morning?

 

Do you go to school?

 

Do you play in the evening?

 

Do you go to park daily?

 

Do you help others?

 

Do you sleep late night?

 

 

Appendix 2

 

MY FRIEND ‘S DAILY ROUTINE

 

She gets up early in the morning.

She takes a bath at 8:15 am.
She brushes her teeth after bathing.
She dresses up at 7:30 am, and gets ready for breakfast
she takes breakfast at 9 o'clock, with her family.
At 8:00 am, she goes to school.
At 1 pm, she returns home.
She does lunch at 2 pm with her family.
She sleeps two hours after lunch.
She goes for a walk with her friends at 5 o'clock in the evening.
She goes to sleep at 8:30 pm at night.

 

 

 

Does she get up early in the morning?

Does she dress up at 8:30 am?

Does she go to school at 8 am?

Does she go for a walk with her friends?

Does she sleep three hours after lunch?


Other Related Links:

Lesson Plan for Conjunction

Lesson Plan for Kinds of Adjectives

Lesson Plan for Noun, Common Noun and Proper Noun

Lesson Plan for Asking Directions

Lesson Plan for Asking Questions in Simple Present

Lesson Plan for Common and Proper Noun

Lesson Plan Template