Bloom Taxonomy

In 1956, Benjamin Bloom presented this taxonomy. According to him, there are three aspects  (domains) of human development.

1- Cognitive      (mental)
2- Affective       (moral)
3- Psychomotor  (physical)

Further, he categorizes the cognitive domain into six stages. These stages are arranged here from low level thinking to high level thinking. Low level thinking includes first three stages and high level thinking includes the last three stages.

1- Knowledge
2- Comprehension
3- Application
4- Analysis
5- Synthesis
6- Evaluation

Revised Bloom Taxonomy

Revised Bloom Taxonomy was presented by Anderson and Kratwohl in 2001. They changed  the names of stages of cognitive domain into action verbs as learning objectives start by a verb. They also placed 'creating' at the highest level of thinking than 'evaluating'.

Knowledge                 →      Remembering

Comprehension     →       Understanding

Application                               Applying

Analysis                                Analysing

 Synthesis                  ↘              Evaluating

Evaluation                 ↗                 Creating

Note: Last two stages replaced their position with each other making synthesis (creating)  more high cognitive ability than Evaluation (evaluating).

Implications of Bloom taxonomy

Some very useful implications of bloom taxonomy are:

1- Bloom Taxonomy is very important in the development of  SLOs (student learning outcomes). Teacher can set the difficulty level of SLOs according to desired level using different action verbs like "know, define, identify, use, make" with the help of bloom taxonomy.

2- Bloom Taxonomy is equally important in item development in the process of assessment in the same way as it helps in the SLOs development. Teacher can include questions of different level of cognitive aspect using different action verbs such as define, elaborate, apply, make, suggest etc. 

3- As there are individual differences among learners, activities can be developed and varied from low difficulty level to high difficulty level, keeping in mind the different levels of  Bloom taxonomy. 

Online Teaching Tools

In the present scenario, when there is a lock down in the whole world due to corona virus, online teaching is the only and the best solution for the teachers and the students to continue the learning process. In online teaching, one do not need to be physically present in the classroom but a virtual classroom is used using a computer and internet. But for this, a teacher needs to be have some knowledge of computer applications like MS Office, PDF etc. to build materials and presentations for online teaching. Another important thing to know is the suitable applications for online teaching. These are two of the best online teaching applications:

ZOOM  Zoom Video Communications, Inc. is an American communications company whose headquarter is in San Jose, California. It is one of the best platform for videotelephony and online chat services through a cloud-based peer-to-peer software platform and is widely used for teleconferencing, telecommuting, distance education and learning.
Skype   Skype is a leading telecommunications platform that aims at providing video chat and voice calls between different computers, tablets, mobile devices, the Xbox One console, and smartwatches through the Internet. Skype also gives instant messaging services. People can transmit text, video, audio and images. Skype also provides video conference calls.

MEET    Google Meet is a video-communication platform launched by Google. It is one of the best alternative to other online platforms to deliver or receive education. It is equally useful as other platforms are.

Teams    It is a great online  business communication platform developed by Microsoft offering workspace chat and videoconferencing, file storage, and application integration. This online tool aims at replacing other Microsoft-operated business messaging and collaboration platforms, such as Skype for Business and Microsoft Classroom. During the COVID-19 pandemic, Teams has proved much useful as many meetings have shifted to a virtual environment.

Some of the other applications to support online teaching are:

Edmodo is the place where you can keep in touch with your students individually and in groups, and can share resources, assessments and grades etc.

Kahoot is the game like plate form to engage students in learning. You can make quizzes to support learning.

Quizlet provides you opportunity to make flash cards, games and other learning tools free.

Schoology is the connecting plate form for K-12 students to keep touch with their leaning.

Mentimeter is an interesting plate form to get feedback in the form of voting.

Student Learning Outcomes (SLOs)

Student Learning Outcomes are the first and the most important step of lesson planning and its implementation in the classroom. SLOs are the statements which tell about the objectives of the lesson. It tells the teacher and the students about their destination. All other steps and activities of lesson planning take lead from Student Learning Outcomes.

A Student Learning Outcome is best described by a mnemonic 'SMART' :

S   → Specific 
M → Measurable
A  → Achievable
R  → Realistic
T  → Time Bound

Specific means that a  SLO should be clear, to the point and relevant to the topic. 

Measurable means that it can be assessed through some reliable assessment tools.

Achievable in a sense that it can be achieved in the classroom in the reasonable time span. 

Realistic means that it should be according to the level of the students. 

Time Bound means that it can be managed in the reasonable time frame.

Bloom Taxonomy can be very helpful in developing good SLOs . Keeping in mind different levels of Bloom Taxonomy, one can develop SLOs according to the desired difficulty level and according to the desired aspect of learning skill. Each SLO should start from an action verb such as define, describe, identify, apply, make, compare, evaluate keeping in mind the different levels of Bloom Taxonomy.

So, a good SLO should have all the above mentioned traits in it.

Some examples of SLOs are:

Students will be able to

* identify different types of adjectives.
* define adverb.
* make questions in simple present tense. 

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