Bloom Taxonomy

In 1956, Benjamin Bloom presented this taxonomy. According to him, there are three aspects  (domains) of human development.

1- Cognitive      (mental)
2- Affective       (moral)
3- Psychomotor  (physical)

Further, he categorizes the cognitive domain into six stages. These stages are arranged here from low level thinking to high level thinking. Low level thinking includes first three stages and high level thinking includes the last three stages.

1- Knowledge
2- Comprehension
3- Application
4- Analysis
5- Synthesis
6- Evaluation

Revised Bloom Taxonomy

Revised Bloom Taxonomy was presented by Anderson and Kratwohl in 2001. They changed  the names of stages of cognitive domain into action verbs as learning objectives start by a verb. They also placed 'creating' at the highest level of thinking than 'evaluating'.




Knowledge                 →      Remembering

Comprehension     →       Understanding

Application                               Applying

Analysis                                Analysing

 Synthesis                  ↘              Evaluating

Evaluation                 ↗                 Creating

Note: Last two stages replaced their position with each other making synthesis (creating)  more high cognitive ability than Evaluation (evaluating).

Implications of Bloom taxonomy

Some very useful implications of bloom taxonomy are:

1- Bloom Taxonomy is very important in the development of  SLOs (student learning outcomes). Teacher can set the difficulty level of SLOs according to desired level using different action verbs like "know, define, identify, use, make" with the help of bloom taxonomy.

2- Bloom Taxonomy is equally important in item development in the process of assessment in the same way as it helps in the SLOs development. Teacher can include questions of different level of cognitive aspect using different action verbs such as define, elaborate, apply, make, suggest etc. 

3- As there are individual differences among learners, activities can be developed and varied from low difficulty level to high difficulty level, keeping in mind the different levels of  Bloom taxonomy. 

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