Important Tips to improve English Speaking

 Following are the some important and concrete tips to improve speaking in English:

1- Listen to English songs and podcasts.

2- Watch English movies.

3- Watch English movies and songs with subtitles initially if you feel it difficult to understand but do not make it habit.

3- Read story books of your interest.

4- Very important thing is to cut down your hesitation and shyness which can be a big hurdle and try to speak in English whenever you have  a chance.

5- Keep in mind one thing that fluency is more important than accuracy as far as speaking is concerned.

6- Proper articulation of words will facilitate fluency. 

7- There is no alternative to a steady practice.

8- Try to think in English rather than in your first language because there is a strong relation between language and thought. This will improve your fluency.

9- Learn the language in chunks.

In addition to this,  it is very important to keep in mind that learning a language does not happen overnight but it develops day by day. Only thing you have to do, is to be remain consistent and do not feel shy and hesitant. Never feel impatient and after sometime, you will start feeling the difference. Try to avail every opportunity of using the desired language in real context.






Preposition and its Types

  Preposition are the words which connect nouns, pronouns or phrases to show their relationship or position with each other.

Preposition Examples: in, on, before, across, above, under, of, at, after, near, beside etc.

Sentences:

Note: Words in italic are prepositions.

He sits in the chair.

She enters through the gate.

They appeared before the jury.


Types of Prepositions:

 

Preposition of Place

Preposition of Time

Preposition of Movement

on

during

across

in

after

through

at

before

down

under

at

up






Fill in the banks with the suitable prepositions. 

1- Who is knocking _________ the door? (in, at, on)
2- He was sitting __________ the chair.(in, on, at)
3- She was walking _________ me. (besides, along, near)
4- The policeman ran _________ the thief. (after, besides, along)
5- He lives __________ London. (on, at, into)
6- The swimmer jumped _________ the swimming pool.  (in, into, at)
7- She jumped _________ the rope. (over, above, on)
8- The father was proud _________ his son's success. (of, in, on)
9- I will be thankful __________ you. (in, to, on)
10- I am inspired __________ his personality. (by, on, at)


Adverb with Examples

 It is a word or phrase which adds in the meaning of a verb, an adjective or another adverb.

Examples: recently, often, here, quickly etc.

Sentences:

Note: Words in italic are adverbs.

He has completed his work recently.

She often visits the park.

They welcomed him warmly.


Types of Adverbs:

 

Manner

Place

Frequency

Time

Degree

happily

here

often

now

slightly

angrily

anywhere

always

then

perfectly

warmly

there

usually

yesterday

very

 sadly

down

 never

last year

completely

 

Adverb Exercise:

Fill in the banks with suitable adverbs.

1- He has completed his project ________. (recently, angrily, awkwardly)

2- He faced the trouble __________. (cowardly, bravely, quickly)

3- She ran __________. (recently, angrily, fast)

4- The players played very ________. (well, recently, completely)

5- He __________ comes to my house. (well, often, bravely)

Adverb Order:

Following is the adverb order when more than one adverbs are used in a sentence:

manner, place, frequency, time


Other Related Links:

Conditional Sentences

Preposition and its Types

Verbs with examples

Adjectives and its Types with Examples

Pronoun and its Types

Noun and its Types

Past Perfect Continuous Tense

Past Perfect Tense

Past Continuous Tense

Past Simple Tense

Present Perfect Continuous

Present Perfect Tense

Present Continuous Tense

Present Simple Tense 

 

Evidence Based Feedback Explained

 

 Hattie & Timperley and Black &William Models Suggest that the evidence based feedback should follow following steps:


1-  Where is the learner going?

 2- Where is the learner now?

3-  How does the learner get there?


Feedback Sources:
  • Teacher
  • Peers
  • Student self reflection

Support:
  •  from colleagues
  •  from leadership

Benefits:
  •  Increases student effort. 
  •  Leads to effective learning strategies.
  •  Provides evidence about students’ learning.
  •  Teacher can have their own reflection and can make adjustment in future lesson plan.

Video Explanation

Verbs with examples

  Verbs are those words which show an action.

 Examples: play, go, come, get, help, make, live etc.

 

Regular verbs: These are verbs which take the form of past and past participle just by adding 'd' or 'ed'.

Examples:

Present   

Past   

Past Participle

Present Participle

play

Played

Played

playing

help

helped

helped

helping

live

lived

lived

living

Cook

Cooked

Cooked

cooking

pluck

Plucked                          

Plucked

plucking

 

Irregular Verbs: These are those verbs which take the form of past and past participle without any regular pattern.

Examples:

Present   

Past   

Past Participle

Present Participle

go

Went

Gone

going

come

came

come

coming

read

Read

Read

reading

Write

Wrote

Written

Writing

Sleep

Slept

Slept

sleeping

 


 

Other Related Links:

Conditional Sentences

Preposition and its Types 

Adverb with Examples

Adjectives and its Types with Examples

Pronoun and its Types

Noun and its Types

Past Perfect Continuous Tense

Past Perfect Tense

Past Continuous Tense

Past Simple Tense

Present Perfect Continuous

Present Perfect Tense

Present Continuous Tense

Present Simple Tense 

 

False Expectations About Students' Results

 It is commonly observed that teachers and parents expect high and same results for every child which is unrealistic. There are a number of factors which support my argument. Such factors are:

  • Individual Differences
  • Reliability of Test
  • Against the Multiple Intelligence Theory etc.

1- Individual Differences

As we all know that there are always individual differences or diversity among students in a number of ways such as physically, morally, mentally, ethnically, socially etc. Then, how we can not expect same marks for every student? It is unnatural, unrealistic and illogical. 

2- Reliability of Test

Same marks for every student in the test can question the reliability of the test. Because, a good test brings diverse results among students. The results of a good and reliable test are always equally distributed among low, average and high performances. So again, my argument is supported also in this way.

3- Against the Multiple Intelligence Theory

It is also against the gardener's multiple intelligence theory which claims different IQs for different areas of knowledge. According to this theory, a child has different IQ level for different subjects which means that if a child is good at mathematics does not ensures that he or she will also be good at languages. This also proves my stance against the parents and teachers' unrealistic expectations about students' results.

Consequences

Consequences of these false expectations by teachers and parents are by far damaging for the students and have negative effects on them. They can carry serious psychological problems and this can worsen their performance. So, I suggest parents and teachers to get out of this and let the students flourish and grow on their own pace and interests. In this way, they will explore their own potential and the legend. 


Other Related Links:












Important things for a teacher's career

 In this video, there is a guidance about all the things which can make a teacher successful and an expert in the teaching field. Such things are teacher beliefs, approaches, methods, lesson planning, child development theories, assessment, activity based teaching, classroom management, feedback, community of practice etc.




Lesson Plan Template

 

Subject and Grade: ---------------------------

Unit: ---------------------           Topic: ---------------------    

Duration/ No of Periods: ---------------------------------------

Students’ Learning Outcomes: -----------------------------------

(from the curriculum)

Students may be able to;

        ·         ----------------------------------------------

        ·        ---------------------------------------------- 

 

Information for Teachers:

       ·         Key points that teacher needs to know for teaching the concept

       ·        The concept maps that may help teachers to communicate the knowledge and skills                        effectively


Material Resources: ----------------------------------

Introduction:

One or two warm up activities and/or questions related to students’ previous knowledge about the concept


Development:

2-3 activities to teach the concept


Sum up/ Conclusion

Revision of key points/ brief summary to help students organize the information in their minds


Assessment:

       ·         Variety of techniques for effective assessment

       ·         Questions that teacher can use to evaluate the learning of the students


Follow Up:

       ·         Enrichment Activities

       ·         Home work

       ·         Projects

      ·         Text Book Questions


 

Lesson Plan Template

Watch this video for more explanation.



Adjectives and its Types with Examples

Definition of Adjective

Adjectives are such kind of words which describe nouns.

                                    Or

Adjectives are those words which tell us about nouns.

Adjective Examples: beautiful, good, nice, red, happy, sad, small, huge, British, wooden                      etc.

Adjective Sentences:

Note: Words in italics are adjectives.

1- He is an intelligent boy.

2- Rose is a beautiful flower.

3- John has British nationality.

4- I bought a wooden table from the bazar.

5- This red shirt suits you nicely.

 

Types of Adjectives:

 

Adjective of Quality or Opinion

Adjective of Quantity

Adjective of Size

Adjective of Shape

Adjective of Origin

nice

some

huge

Round

American

great

any

small

oval

Chinese

happy

two

tiny

pointed

Asian

 good

several

 long

flat

European

 

Note:

  •          Adjectives usually come before noun
  •          If more than one adjectives are used, then order will be: opinion or quality, size, age, shape

  

 

Activities for Teaching Adjectives


Adjectives (Activity 1) 

 Make your students stand in a circle.
 Ask them to make an adjective with the first letter of his name.
e.g. Ambitious Ali, Sweet Salman, Keen Kamran etc.
 Start clockwise. Each student makes an adjective.
 When any student is stuck and unable to find any adjective, he
is out of the circle.
 The activity continues till the last student keeps standing and
wins the contest.

Adjectives (Activity 2) 

 Find out the Object:
 Put some objects in the bag.
 Ask one student to look into the bag and describe
one object. E.g. a neat new black marker.
 The other student will go and pick out the same
object. If he does so, the pair wins


Other Related Links:

Conditional Sentences

Preposition and its Types 

Adverb with Examples

Verbs with examples

Pronoun and its Types

Noun and its Types

Past Perfect Continuous Tense

Past Perfect Tense

Past Continuous Tense

Past Simple Tense

Present Perfect Continuous

Present Perfect Tense

Present Continuous Tense

Present Simple Tense 

 




Role of Motivation in Teaching and Learning

 Definitions

According to Mathis and Jackson, motivation is an emotion or desire operating on a person’s will and causing that person to act.

According to Berelson and Steiner, it is an inner state that activates or moves. Motivation involves effort, persistence and goals.

Jones states that motivation is concerned with how behavior gets started, is energized, is sustained, is directed, is stopped and what kind of subjective reaction is present in the organism while all this is going on.

According to Kelly, motivation ‘has to do with the forces that maintain and alter the direction, quality and intensity of behavior.

According to Mondy, Holmes and Flippa, motivation is the process of influencing or stimulating a person to take action that will accomplish desired goal

Importance and Types of Motivation

Motivation plays a very important role in teaching and learning. Because, until the students are not ready, it is impossible to make them learn anything. Though, its output is not concrete one and it is difficult to measure it quantitatively, but it can be integrated into every aspect of teaching and learning. Before we discuss it further, it is necessary to know two different types of motivation. These two types of motivation are:

1- Intrinsic Motivation

2- Extrinsic motivation

1- Intrinsic Motivation

Intrinsic motivation is the one which emerges from inside, feeling the importance of something and consequently, doing that task willfully. For this type of motivation, a lot of effort is required on the part of teacher, and he needs to very skillful and expert in this. This type of motivation is long lasting and becomes permanent part of one’s personality. For this type of motivation, no physical resources are required. For example, it can be aroused just by giving positive and constructive feedback or making your lesson more comprehensive. It can also be produced by presenting the importance of desired task in daily life.

2- Extrinsic motivation

Extrinsic motivation is produced through some worldly desires or temporary benefits such as money, gifts etc. It is also important type of motivation and can help us in such situations where we feel that it is difficult to produce intrinsic motivation. So, the right and timely use of both types of motivation can make our teaching successful and fruitful.

Some people also categorize motivation as positive and negative but I take it as unnecessary and just as a sake of making more types of motivation. Only positive and negative feedbacks have different effects on motivation. 

Famous Theories of Motivation

  • Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
  • Herzberg’s two factor theory
  • Alderfer’s ERG theory
  • Self-determination theory
Other Related Links: