Principles and Purposes. The minimum criteria for admission to a PhD program will be completion of the BS (or equivalent) degree. Furthermore, in admission of students to PhD programs, this policy encourages admissions committees to use a substantive approach to ascertain (a) applicants’ commitment (level of interest) in completing the PhD program and (b) their preparedness with respect to previous academic training that will enable them to succeed in the program.


Completion of Prior Degree. Before entry into a PhD program, the student would have completed his or her BS/MS/MPhil or equivalent degrees.


Prior Degree in Different Discipline. It will not be a compulsory requirement for admission to a PhD program that the applicant would have been awarded a prior degree in the same discipline. If the applicant has a great interest in completing a PhD degree in a different discipline, other than prior degree, and the admissions committee is satisfied that the applicant’s prior education has prepared him sufficiently to study the course of studies of the doctoral program, the applicant can be considered for admissions irrespective of their prior qualification in a different discipline.


Minimum GPA Requirement. A minimum CGPA of 3.0 out of 4.0 in the) or First Division in the most recent degree obtained is required, irrespective of degree obtained from Pakistani or foreign universities.


Testing Requirement. Applicants will be required to complete the following testing requirements:

a.         To take one of the following non-subject specific admissions test:

i.          The Graduate Record Examination (GRE) test prepared by the Education Testing Service;

ii.          A graduate admission test prepared by the Education Testing Council; or

iii.         With the permission of the HEC, an equivalent test prepared by the university itself, or by another university.

b.         Subject tests will not be compulsory, with the possible exception of certain science disciplines, at the discretion of the university.


Statement of Purpose. As part of the application, applicants will submit a statement of purpose, which will be an integral part of the application. The admissions committee will use the information provided to assess the preparedness and interest of the candidate in completing doctoral studies.


Discontinuation of Certain Programs Leading to PhD. “MS/MPhil-leading-to-PhD” programs have been closed by the HEC, and no further admissions are allowed in such programs.




The HEC prescribed minimum criteria for the award of PhD Degrees is as follows:


Coursework and Residency Requirement. Before the award of a PhD Degree:

a) The student will complete coursework of at least 48 credit hours, most of which will be fulfilled through regular classes (classes that are taught on campus by full-time faculty members of the university).

b)         For students who have previously completed a graduate degree in the same discipline (MS/MPhil or equivalent), the university will notify a policy (which may vary from discipline to discipline) with objective criteria permitting such students to receive credit for prior coursework for not more than 50% of the total credit requirement of the program.

c)         There will be a residency requirement for a period of at least two years.


Comprehensive Examination. After the completion of coursework, every student will be required to pass a comprehensive examination; provided that if the student fails to pass the comprehensive test, he or she will be permitted one more attempt to take the test.


Doctoral Dissertation. Each researcher will be required to write a doctoral dissertation.


For the detailed information, Click on the link given below.

HEC PHD Admission Policy

Minimum Roles of a Teacher

 The circumstances for all the teachers all over the world are not same. Mostly in developing countries, they are facing a lot of problems such as low salaries, less resources, non-cooperative and unprofessional management and low social status. Keeping in mind these problems, a teacher needs to carry out following roles at least.

Updated Knowledge

Minimum requirement for a teacher is to keep his knowledge up to date. It is compulsory as every day there is a new research and changes in the existing knowledge. So, if a teacher does not keep himself in touch with new and updated knowledge, then he is not doing justice with his profession. Student who is a product based on such type of teaching will not be able to compete the international market. Already, it is obvious that poor countries are not only poor economically but also have poor education system which is the main reason of their decline. So, it is very important for a teacher to keep his knowledge up to date.

Activity Based Teaching

I have a point of view that it is very unrealistic to demand a daily, systematic lesson plan from a teacher who is facing above mentioned problems. But I am strongly in favor of presenting content through at least one or two well integrated activities. So, a teacher should not compromise on activity based teaching. According to me, this is the crux of teaching. 

Learner Centered and Communicative Approach

If as a teacher, you want your learners to be confident, creative, productive and independent, there is no alternative to this approach. They should be given chances to explore themselves because every individual is born with different abilities and potentials, so we should confine them to only according to our own single way of thinking.

Variation in Methodology

Teacher should keep on varying the teaching methodology according to the topic and the subject because each topic and subject has its own unique nature and requirement. Same method each time will not serve the purpose and students will become demotivated. For example, you cannot teach science just through book reading. Instead you use methods like demonstration, heuristic or projects etc. 

Reflective Teaching

Being reflective is key to success for a teacher. Without it teaching will be stagnant and consequently will have results accordingly. A reflective teacher carries out reflection of his work through proven and systematic reflective techniques and methods and he modify his activities and work in the light of authentic and valuable reflection. He knows about more than one ways of reflection.

Keeping Level with Students 

Sometimes unknowingly, teacher does not keep in mind the level of students such as age or grade, and consequently, it leads to an understanding gap between student and teacher. Students will lose their interest and there will be no learning. So, a teacher should keep in mind the level of the students while teaching.

In a nutshell, above given are the minimum roles which are compulsory for a teacher to perform to justify his teaching.

Other Related Links:

Effect of Physical Development on Mental and Moral Development

 In 1956, Benjamin Bloom presented three aspects of human development with respect to learning objectives:

1- Cognitive Domain (mental development)

2- Affective Domain (moral development)

3- Psychomotor Domain (physical development)

After that, and even before, the most importance was given to cognitive development as compared to other two domains, particularly in under developing countries. Physical development was least focused.

The point is that Physical development is equally important as other two domains are. In addition to this physical development not only cover physical aspect but also helps in mental and moral development. 

When children play games and sports, they follow certain rules and they learn how to obey rules for mutual benefit. They learn to cooperate, help and teamwork. Moreover, they learn qualities the qualities of patience and tolerance. They learn how to behave in the situations of victory and defeat. In this way, their moral development gets addressed automatically. This the only concrete way of getting children developed morally.

Participating in sports and games also has positive and pleasant effect on human mind. For sometime, a sportsman forgets all pressures and problems of his life, and gets relaxed. This makes and keeps his mind strong and healthy. His mind gets practice how to perform in uneven situations of life. His intelligence quotient improves. So, in this way, physical activities also improve the human mentally. 

In a nutshell, physical development is very important for the development of children even for the mental and moral development.

In 1971, Simpson presented following 7 stages of psychomotor domain:

1- Perception 

2- Set

3- Guided Response 

4- Mechanism 

5- Complex Over Response 

6- Adaptation 

7- Origination 

In 1970, Dave presented following 5 stages of psychomotor domain:

1- Imitation 

2- Manipulation 

3- Precision

4- Articulation 

5- Naturalisation 

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Language, Mind and Thought

 Language, mind and thought! From where to start? I make a yardstick, which came first ? The answer is mind. Because every human comes in this world with a brain physically and the main role of the brain is to think,  and that process is called mind, and the product is thought. Now another question arises, why brain does the act of thinking? From the very first day of his birth, a human tries to fulfill or at least urges for some basic needs like food. Here the thinking process starts. So, to express these needs, the baby does some action or gestures e.g. he starts weeping. So, if we arrange the all steps, the sequence is needs, mind, thought and then expression. So, to express some needs or feelings, language can be used as a means or tool instead of gestures.

Now, let’s discuss the idea that language shapes thought. It can be correct to some extent Because thought is an abstract thing, and to present it to others, you need to give it some form which can be understandable and that role plays the language. So, in other words, you can say that it gives shape to thought. Language can affect the intensity of thought through devices like euphemism etc but it can not change the core concept. So, that is the limitation of a language.

Another role of language is propaganda language. Some people say that propaganda language changes thought. If we closely examine the different examples in history like Nazim, it was not only language but fear and terror were more prominent to control the people's behaviour. 

In short, language is mere a tool to express thought and this tool can be used intelligently to get desired results of communication.