MAJOR VARIETIES IN LANGUAGE

 

1. Code

'A code' is an arbitrary, pre-arranged set of signals' (Gleason, 1968:374). A language is merely one special variety of code. The total organization of various linguistic components in a language is the code of that language. It is an abstract system which happens to be accepted arbitrarily in the community which uses it.

2. Dialect and Socioleot

A regional, temporal or social variety within a single language is a dialect; it differs in pronunciation, grammar and vocabulary from the standard language, which is in itself n socially favoured dialect, 8o a dialect is a variation of langungo sufficiently different to be considered a separate entity, but not different enough to be classed as a separate language. Sometimes it is difficult to decide whether a variant constitutes a dialectal sub-division or a different language, since it may be blurred by political boundaries, eg between Dutch and some Low German dialects. Regional dialects (or local or geographical or territorial dialects) are spoken by the people of a particular geographical area within a speech community, e.g. Cockney in London, but due to the increase in education and mobility they are receding.

Sociolects (social dialects or class dialects), on the other hand, are spoken by the members of a particular group of stratum of a speech community.

3. Isogloss

An isogloss is 'a line indicating the degree of linguistic change' (Gleason 1963 : 398). "On linguistic maps, a line separating the areas (called isogloss area) in which the language differs with respect to a given feature of features, i.e. a line making the boundaries within which a given linguistic feature or phenomenon can be observed (A Dictionary of Linguistics).

So an isogloss is a representation of statistical probabilities, a graphic way of portraying a translation in speech characteristics from one area to another, a bundle of isoglosses may be interpreted as marking a zone of relative great translation in speech. We may, therefore, think of it as indicating dialect boundary. It is a term modelled on geographical terms like isotherm (a line joining areas of equal temperature) and isobar (a line joining areas of equal atmospheric pressure). It is in contrast to another linguistic term isograph, i.e. 'any line on a linguistic map, indicating a uniformity in the use of sounds, vocabulary, syntax, inflection, etc'.

Though an isogloss is a convenient way of description, but may be misleading if the apparent sharpness of distinction between the areas is not carefully discounted. The reading of the isoglosses is even more dangerous, since the reader has not seen the intricate mass of data upon which they are based.

4. Registers

Whereas dialects are the varieties of language according to users, registers are the varieties of language according to use. Registers are 'stylistic-functional varieties of a dialect or language'. These may be narrowly defined by reference to subject matter (field of discourse, e.g. jargon of fishing, gambling, sports, etc.), to medium (mode of discourse e.g. printed material, written, latter, message on tape, etc.), or to level of formality, that is style (manner of discourse). Registers are, therefore, situationally conditioned field-of-discourse oriented varieties of a language'. 

According to the role of the speaker, a young lecturer, for example, will speak in different ways when communicating with his wife, his children, his father, his colleagues, his students, when shopping, and so on. Each of these varieties will be a register.

5. Idiolect

Idiolect is a variety of language used by one individual speaker, including peculiarities of pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, etc. A dialect is made of idiolects of a group of speakers in a social or regional subdivision of a speech community. Linguists often analyse their own idiolect to make general statements about language. So the idiolect is "an identifiable pattern of speech characteristic of an individual." or "Idiolect is the individual's personal variety of the community language system" (A Dictionary of Linguistics: 1954.

6. Diglossia

Where we do find two or more dialects or languages in regular use in a community we have a situation which Fergusson (1959) has called 'diglossia.' He has observed that in diglossia communities there is a strong tendency to give one of the dialects or language a higher status or prestige, and to reserve it for certain functions in society, such as government, education, the law, religion, literature, press, radio and television. The prestige dialect' is often called the standard dialect (the language),

7. Pidgin

A pidgin is a contract language, a mixture of elements from different natural languages. Its use is usually restricted to certain groups, c.g. traders and seamer. Pidgins are used in some parts of South-West Asia. Chinese pidgin, a combination of items from Chinese and English to serve the limited purpose of trade, is another well-known example. An alternative terms used for the pidgin is contact vernacular.

8. Creole

When a pidgin becomes a linguafranca, it is called a creole. Thus a pidgin may extend beyond its limited function and permeate through various other activities. Then it may acquire a standardized grammar, vocabulary and sound-system; and it may then be spoken by an increasing number of people as their first language. It has not such history, not much prestige either. But on account of its wider application and first-language status, it has to be distinguished from a pidgin. A creole or a creolized language is a mixed natural language composed of elements of different languages in areas of intensive contact. Well-known examples are the creoles of the islands of Mauritius and Haiti.



Lesson Plan for Countable, Uncountable, Common and Collective nouns

 Studente Learning Outcomes

1- Recall and demonstrate the use of more common, countable and uncountable nouns from the immediate and extended environment.

2- Identify and use collective nouns.

Information for teachers

1- Collective nouns are nouns that refer to things or people as a unit or group. Nouns that name a group of people, place or thing are called collective nouns.  Example: family; a class of students; team; a crowd of people, a crowd; a galaxy of stars/a galaxy; a fleet of ships/a fleet; a colony of ants; a pride of lions; a bunch of flowers/bananas; a parade of elephants

2- Time allocation is tentative and can change as per need of the activity.

3- While teaching the lesson, the teacher should also consult textbook at all steps where and when applicable

Duration/Number of periods

40 mins/01 Period

Material/Resources required

Pictures (cut from newspapers, magazines) of crowd of people, students in a class, cricket team, herd of sheep/goats, bunch of flowers, a family etc, chalk/marker, board, worksheets. You can even draw these on flash cards to show.

Introduction

1- Review previously learnt types of noun by asking students: What are nouns? Give some examples of common nouns. What are countable and uncountable nouns? Invite few students to blackboard and ask them to write examples (words, sentences) of common nouns, countable and uncountable nouns.

2- Help students recall the concepts if they have difficulty recalling.

3- Show the students a picture (see materials above) and ask what they see in the picture.

4- Repeat with all the pictures.

5- Tell the students that they are seeing a new type of noun. Teach the students collective nouns (see Information for Teachers above).

6- Write ten examples of collective nouns on the blackboard. Go through each collective noun with students and teach pronunciation.

Development

Activity 1

1- Write the definition of collective nouns on the board with examples, (Definition is given in Information for Teachers above).

2- Ask students to write the definition and examples of collective nouns in their note books.

Activity 2

1- Give the students worksheets. Give clear instructions. (See the sample worksheet at the end of the lesson plan.) (If photocopying of worksheets is not possible, then students can write the sentences in notebooks and draw pictures if they get time in class or do as homework.)

2- For students' understanding, write on the blackboard one sentence using a collective noun. (For example: I saw a fleet of ships in the sea).

3- Help students If they have difficulty constructing a sentence,

Conclusion/Sum up

Give students a quick recap by asking them: What are collective nouns? What are some examples of collective noun?

Assessment

1- Assess Students' ability to recall and demonstrate use of common, countable and uncountable nouns through the correct responses given in the introduction activity.

2- Assess students' ability to use collective nouns through the sentences made in activity 2.

3- Assess students' understanding of collective nouns through their response in the sum up session.

4- Assess students' ability to identify collective nouns through the correct selection of collective nouns in the follow up activity.

5- Arrange a written quiz / activity to assess students' understanding of common, proper, countable, uncountable and collective nouns.

6- Keep assessing and reinforcing whenever a collective noun is found in subsequent reading lessons.

Follow-up

Ask the students to write in their note books all the collective nouns they find in the chapter they are currently reading. Give this activity as home work.





American IPA Chart with Sounds

  



International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) with Examples

  In English correspondence between sounds of word and their spellings is a rare phenomenon. The same letter sounds differently at different places. The reason is that the spelling system became fixed in the sixteenth century, although pronunciation has been changing since then. So, while learning the English sounds it is absolutely necessary to use a script such as the International Phonetic Alphabet, in which each symbol represents one and only one sound. The following table explains the symbols used for English sounds.

English Pure Vowels:

Number

Symbol

Ordinary Spelling

Phonetic Transcription

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

/i:/

/i/

/e/

/æ/

/a:/

/ᴐ/

/ᴐ:/

/u/

/u:/

/ᴧ/

/ə:/

/ə/

 

tree

hit

set

bat

harm

pot

all

put

mood

hut

girl

admit

 

tri:

hit

set

bæt

ha:m

pt

:1

put

mu:d

ht

gə:1

ədmit

 

 

English Diphthongs

Number

Symbol

Ordinary Spelling

Phonetic Transcription

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

/ei/

/ou/

/ai/

/au/

/ᴐi/

/ia/

/eə /

/uə/

say

no

fly

how

toy

near

fair

poor

sei

nou

flai

hau

ti

nia

feə

puə

 

English Consonants

Number

Symbol

Ordinary Spelling

Phonetic Transcription

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

P

B

t

d

k

g

f

v

θ

ð

S

Z

ʃ

ʒ

tʃ

m

n

ɳ

l

r

h

w

j

 

pen

bot

toa

dress

kind

good

fine

very

thin

this

sее

zeal

ship

leisure

chit

jem

miss

nine

song

like

red

heat

wide

уев

pen

bet

ti:

dres

kaind

gud

fain

veri

θin

ðis

si:

zi:1

ʃip

leʒ

tʃit

dʒem

mis

nain

sᴐɳ

laik

red

hi:t

waid

jes

 

 

Note: In Received Pronunciation (R.P.), Y is not pronounced when it is in the final position or is followed by a consonant. Its sound, therefore, is not given in phonetic transcription.



Linguistics and Anthropology

 

            Broadly speaking, anthropology is the study of mankind and of culture. Its main subdivisions are physical anthropology and cultural anthropology. Linguistics is a branch of cultural anthropology. The chief contribution of cultural anthropology, as a whole, to the study of language has been the broadening of linguists' outlooks so that their horizons include, not only languages, but culture of many different types. It has helped in removing the misconception that one language is superior to the other in accepting a generalization that all languages are complex and are adequate to the needs of the respective communities, and in establishing certain linguistic universals. It has also made clear to the linguist the fact that languages are not primitive' although cultures may be primitive. Furthermore, a language is a language even if it has no writing system.

           On another level, linguistics has made a very valuable contribution to the methodology of social sciences, through the concept of the functional unit and the distinctive feature of behaviour, etc. Anthropology has benefited from linguistics in the field of individual and social group learning process, correlation between heredity and linguistic structure, etc. The fact that a man's dialect is the mirror of his culture has also been beneficial to the anthropologists and sociologists.

           Now-a-days, the relationship between linguistics and anthropology is less close. But at the same time a new discipline called Sociolinguistics is expanding rapidly, meaning thereby, sociology and linguistics are getting closer


Linguistics and Philosophy


           Association between philosophy and language and linguistics has indeed been historically very long. In fact, it were the philosophers who first of all speculated on language. Plato's Dialogues have explicit reference to language. In the field of semantics, philosophy has contributed tremendous insight to the linguists. The structural linguists ignored meaning because they thought it to be a subject of philosophy.

           Yet there are deep-rooted differences between philosophy and linguistics. The philosopher's concern is with 'the uses of language for certain purposes that are common to many communities' he is not interested in the detailed differences between languages; the linguist's concern is with the details of each language for its own sake', and he evolves and evaluates theories primarily to deal with particular languages. The linguist is particularly interested in the formal structuring of the sentences of a language; the philosopher is interested in the logical structure and the inferential possibilities of the propositions they express irrespective of the grammar of any particular language. Hence both these disciplines are getting remote from each other these days.



Linguistics and Psychology

 

            Linguistics studies human language. Language is behaviour or a cognitive process or both, is still a controversial issue, yet it is well accepted that psychology is the study of human behaviour and human mind. Hence both linguistics and psychology are closely related.

             Investigations and attempts to find out answers to certain fundamental questions like the following are likely to provide invaluable clues to the linguist: What is the principle of learning? How is language learned by a child? Does he learn by merely imitating the sounds he hears? How does a child select the sounds that belong to the language he is exposed to, and ignore all other sounds? Does the learning of the mother tongue involve the same processes as the learning of a second or a foreign language? Is language learning a result of stimulus-response, imitation, repetition and reinforcement, or of exposure? Can a child whose brain is injured in an accident relearn a language? Does the loss of linguistic skills affect his other skills? What roles do memory, motivation, age and aptitude play in language learning? Surely the answers to such questions would help both the linguist and the scientist.



Linguistics and Literature


           The nature of language is of vital concern to the students of literature, because language is the medium in which literature is written. A creative writer is never wholly free from linguistic and cultural considerations or limitations howsoever unconscious of these he may be literally. He has to choose his structures and sounds according to the kind of aesthetic effect he wants to create. His creation is determined by the structure of the language. The structure determines what can and cannot be said in the language, just as his cultural background determines the semantic content of his work. All linguistic levels exert an influence on his creativity and on what he creates. All these factors influence his style. Word-formation can often be used as a source for particular literary effect. It is linguistics which can scientifically explain the difficulties of translating a literary text, especially a poem. In return, it is the literary artist who enriches a language enormously, and refines it. It is he who also sets direction of language change by his distinct use and coinages and word formations. Applying linguistics to the study of poetry and other forms of literature under the name of "Stylistics" is another testimony of the closeness between linguistics and literature. Among other fine arts music is much closer to linguistics than any other branch of fine arts.



Linguistics and the Natural Sciences

 

            Linguistics touches the natural sciences such as physics, physiology and zoology Acoustics brings linguistic near physics, the structure of the human vocal organs near physiology and the communicative systems of living beings and their comparison near zoology. A fairly detailed knowledge offered by these sciences about how sound waves are framed, transmitted and received, what are the organs and articulatory processes involved in the production of speech are of immense help to the linguist. On the basis of such information he classifies sounds, and determines their characteristics. Physiology provides him knowledge about brain and the central nervous system.

             Language is speech uttered out of mouth. Hence the answers to questions like--how are sounds produced? how does the wind come out of the lungs through the windpipe to the vocal cords to pass through the mouth or nasal passage? How do various speech organs such as vocal cords, soft-palate, tongue, teeth lips, etc. affect the sound?-are of primary interest and investigation for the linguist. He can find out answers to such questions from biologist. 

            Science has contributed a great deal to the methodology of linguistics. It has formalized it; it has made it much more rigorous, objective and scientific. It has helped the linguist to describe language too. Yet in its methodology, linguistics is 'intermediate' between the natural and social sciences. This is because of the subject matter of linguistics which is complicated and full of many variables. Predictions of the linguist are not exactly like those of the natural scientist. Linguistics may, therefore, be compared with geology rather than with chemistry or physics in matters of approach and methodology.



APPLIED LINGUISTICS

 

              Applied Linguistics is the collective term for the various applications of linguistic (and phonetic) scholarship to related practical fields--foreign language teaching, lexicography, translation, speech pathology and therapy, error analysis, etc. Applied linguistics in the widest sense, therefore, borders on other disciplines, e.g. sociology, anthropology, psychology, biology computational linguistics, stylistics, etc. The speech therapist, the literary critic, the translator, communication engineer, the language teacher, the syllabus former, the educational planner, the textbook writer, the dictionary maker have found linguistics useful for their work. Applied Linguistics is a consumer, or user, not a producer of theories. As a field of study it is about 30 years old.

              If a person knows a language and its structure, it may help him write better text-books teach it more efficiently and translate it more accurately. If a learner who wants to learn a language is told about its systems and sounds scientifically he may learn it sooner and better than he would do it by haphazard, hit-or-miss manner. A learner of a foreign language can acquire with the help of phonetics accurate pronunciation.

              Psychologists and neuro-surgeons are interested in the function of the brain and the principle of learning. A child's attempt to learn a language, his ability to categorize, his loss of control over his linguistic skill (reading, writing, speaking and listening with understanding), his his conceptual capabilities and failures-all aid the specialist in his field. Engineers who know the properties of speech can devise better telephones, telephones that can operate when you dictate rather than dial the number of subscriber. Instead of touch-typewriter we can have dictation typewriter, and machine can do the translation work done by humans. We can have better radios and better television receivers.

             It is believed that each man's voice-print is unique as his thumb-impression. It may be easier for officer of the law to apprehend criminals and bring them before the bar of justice with the help of tapes of recorded conversation. 

            Philosophers can take a fresh look at some of the unresolved controversies in their fields with the insights gained by their acquaintance with linguistics for example, between the rationalist point of view and the empiricist point of view about the nature of learning They can also study the structure of meaning and the validity of forming linguistic universals.

            Sociologists can take a look at the interaction of social groups, the role played by languages and dialects in group dynamics, the problems created by bilingualism, polylingualism, etc. Anthropologists can study a community better if they know the language of the community.

            Mathematicians are interested in the formal properties of natural languages and how meaning is mapped into sound. In devising computer languages, such information proves valuable. Teachers of composition can easily diagnose the problems of their students and suggest quick and effective remedies to improve their performance

            Above all, the study of language satisfies our intellectual urge, and we derive satisfaction and pleasure when we come to know about the mysteries of language Finally the rhetorical question : 'why should anyone want to study the work of Shakespeare, Picasso and so on? The answer is 'for its own sake'. And so with language study.

              Thus the study of linguistics quenches linguistic thirst, gives the knowledge of the properties and mysteries of language, illuminates ancient and pre-historic culture, helps in improving and reforming spellings, vocabulary, pronunciation, usage, interpretation. Some day advances in linguistics may help in the creation of some new international language, in developing new kinds of talking machines, in understanding the language of any other species if found on any other planet, although so far there is no proof of life on any other planet. The study of linguistics is also useful in the information of scripts and spellings, production of teaching materials, dictionaries, grammars and text books.



LINGUISTIC COMPETENCE AND PERFORMANCE

 

Noam Chomsky's concept of competence and performance is somewhat similar to Saussure's concept of language and parole. Competence, according to Chomsky, is the native speaker's knowledge of his language, the system of rules he has mastered, his ability to produce and understand a vast number of new sentences. Competence is the study of the system of rules, performance is the study of actual sentences themselves, of the actual use of the language in real-life situation. So the speaker's knowledge of the structure of a language is his linguistic competence and the way in which he uses it is his linguistic performance.

              Competence is, then, an underlying mental system, it underlies actual behaviour, linguistic institution ability to analyse language, detecting ambiguities, ignoring mistakes, understanding new sentences, producing entirely new sentences. Whereas competence is a set of Principles which a speaker masters, performance is what a speaker does. The former is a kind of code, the latter is an act of encoding or decoding. Competence concerns the kind of structures the person has succeeded in mastering and internalizing, whether or not he utilizes them, in practice, without interference from the many of the factors that play a role in actual behaviour. For anyone concerned with intellectual processes, or any question that goes beyond mere date arranging, it is the question of competence that is fundamental. Obviously one can find out about competence only by studying performance, but this study must be carried out in devious and clever ways, if any serious result is to be obtained." In this way, the abstract, internal grammar which enables a speaker to utter and understand an infinite number of potential utterances is a speaker's competence. 

             This distinction has caused a lot of arguments in current-day linguistics. Some socio-linguists regard it as an unreal distinction which ignores the importance of studying language in its social setting. They say that many of today's grammars are based on unjustified assumptions concerning a speaker's competence rather on his performance. But the division is a useful one, if not carried to extremes. In an ideal situation, the two approaches should complement each other. Any statements concerning a speaker's competence must ultimately be derived from data collected while studying his performance. 

              Although Chomsky' competence/performance dichotomy closely resembles Saussure's langue/parole, yet the main difference is that Saussure stresses the sociological implications of langue, while Chomsky stresses the psychological implications of competence. These distinctions are also parallel to a distinction made between code and message in communications engineering. A code is the pre-arranged signaling system. A message is an actual message sent using that system



LANGUE AND PAROLE


Ferdinand de Saussure made a sharp distinction between three main terms-le langage, la langue, and la parole, and then concentrated on two of them. He envisaged le langage (human speech as a whole) to be composed of two aspects, which he called langue (the language system) and parole (the act of speaking). Le langage has no exact equivalent in English, it embraces the faculty of language in all its various forms and manifestations. Le langage is the faculty of human speech present in all normal human beings due to heredity, but which requires the correct environmental stimuli for proper development it in our faculty to talk to each other. 'Taken whole it in many-sided and heterogeneous straddling several areas simultaneously physical physiological and psychological--it belongs to the individual and to society, we cannot put it into any category of human facts for we cannot discover its unity Langage, thus is a universal behaviour trait more of interest to the anthropologist or biologist than to the linguist, who commences his study with langues and paroles. To quote Saussure 'La langue est pour nous le langage moins la parole' Language is for us le langage less speech.

                        Langue, according to Saussure, in the totality (the collective fact') of a language, deducible from an examination of the memories of all the language users. It is a storehouse, 'the sum of word-images in the minds of individuals. It is not to be confused with human speech (langage) of which it is only a definite part, though certainly an essential one. It is both a social product of the faculty of speech and a collection of necessary conventions that have been adopted by a social body to permit individuals to exercise that faculty. Langue, therefore, is a corporate, social phenomenon. It is homogeneous whereas langage is heterogenous. It is concrete and we can study it. It is a system of linguistic signs which are not abstract but real entities, tangible to be reduced to conventional, written symbols. Putting it loosely langue is grammar + vocabulary + pronunciation, system of a community. As stated by Hjelmslev, langue as used by Saussure includes three different concepts:

(a) the language scheme (the pure language form defined independently of its social realization and physical manifestations);

(b) the language norm (the material form defined by its social realization but independent of particular manifestation);

(c) the language custom (a set of customs accepted by a particular society and defined by observable manifestations).

          Ultimately, langue has to be related to parole which is the actual usage of individuals, which a community manifests in its everyday speech, the actual, concrete act of speaking on the part of an individual, the controlled or controllable psycho-physical activity. Parole is the set of all utterances that have actually been produced, while langue is the set of all possible grammatical sentences in the language. From this it follows that parole is a 'personal, dynamic, social activity, which exists at a particular time and place and in a particular situation as opposed to langue which, exists apart from any particular manifestation in speech.' 

            Parole is the only object available for direct observation to the linguist. Utterances are instances of parole. The underlying structure in terms of which we produce them as speakers and understand them as hearers is the langue in question (Persian, Chinese, etc.) and is independent of the physical medium (or substance) in which it is realized. A langue, on the other hand, is not spoken by anybody, but is a composite body of linguistic phenomena derived as it were from the personal dialects (paroles) of all native speakers.



SYNCHRONY AND DIACHRONY IN LINGUISTICS

 

Synchrony is the study of a language in a given time, diachrony through time. Synchronie or descriptive linguistics studies a language at one period in time; it investigates the way people speak in a given speech community in a given point in time. Diachronie or historical (or temporal) linguistics studies the development of languages through time: for example, the way in which French and Italian have evolved from Latin, it also investigates language changes. Saussure says: "Synchronic linguistics will be concerned with the logical and psychological relations that bind together co-existing terms and form a system in the collective mind of speakers. Diachronic linguistics on the contrary, will study relations that bind together successive terms not perceived by the collective mind but substituted for each other without forming a system." Synchronie linguistics deals with systems, diachronie with units. These two approaches had to be kept clearly apart and pursued separately. Saussure considered synchronie linguisties to be more important: "the first thing that strikes us when we study the facts of language is that their succession in time does not exist in so far as the speaker is concerned, He is confronted with a state. That is why the linguist who wishes to understand a state must discard all knowledge of everything that produced it and ignore diachrony." 


Letter Applying for a Job

Letter-I


Roslan Sultan

199 Jalan Baik

Singapore 999199

21 September 2003


The Personnel Officer

Prototype Construction Company Private Limited


Dear Sir,

         I am writing in response to your advertisement in the 'Singapore Voice today. I am particularly interested in applying for the post of 'Administrative Officer'.

         I have just left school and am presently waiting for my 'A' Levels examination results. I am looking for permanent employment. In this regard I am pleased to inform you that I have been excused from National service on grounds that I have flat feet.

         Even though I have no experience in the job advertised, I have the necessary educational qualifications. Also, I have undergone a few leadership training courses which have prepared me to cope with situations where I have to motivate people to give of their best.

         If I am given an opportunity, I shall prove myself. I am pleased to send with this letter my resume and testimonials. I hope to have the pleasure of working for your company.


Yours Faithfully

Roslan Sultan


Letter-II


Daniel Teo

115 Rivervale Road

Singapore 444115

12 October 2003


The Personnel Officer

Web Engineers Pte Ltd


Dear Sir,

          I am writing in response to your advertisement in the 'Singapore Voice today. I am interested in working for your company as an engineer.

          Presently I am working for a small company in Tuas. I am the assistant engineer in Manpower Engineering. The problem at present is that this is a small company and I would very much like to extend my horizon by working for a large company like Web Engineers.

          I hold a degree in engineering from National University of Singapore. I have several references from our clients and have my present company's permission to show them to you. In fact, my present boss approves of my writing to you to apply for this job, as he is aware that I need a bigger challenge.

           Enclosed are copies of relevant documents. I will be happy to call on you at your earliest convenience.


Yours Faithfully

Daniel Teo


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Letter of Apology

Jasmine

Block 168 Pasir Ris Drive 3

#093627

Singapore S20168

14 August 2003


Dear Maria,

            I am not sure that you want to hear from me but let me get it off my chest anyway.

            I ask your forgiveness for my behaviour at your birth day party that day I realize now that you must have felt very hurt give no excuses for my behaviour except that I was not quite myself after I heard that criticism from John As I see it now, there was no good reason for me to have blown my top. I have already apologized to him and he has graciously accepted my apology. But still I think the greater wrong I did was to you, as it was your birthday. 

            I sincerely hope that you will find it in your heart to forgive me and that we can be friends again.


Yours Faithfully

Jasmine


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A Letter Offering Condolences

Christopher

Thomson Walk

De 383000

18 December 2003


My dear Tom

               It was with a sense of personal loss that I received the sand news of the demise of your grandfather, Mr. Marcus John.

               He was a great man and I know how painful this must be for you. I know that he meant a lot to you and you to him in times of such sudden sorrow, we must be brave. I would urge you at this time to understand that good people do not pass from us since they remain as part of us forever. The elder gentleman has left a lot with us. We have gathered a lot of memories from our contacts with him, which we will cherish.

              Let me in parting say that I shall miss him as much as you like you, I will remember all the good memories we have of this great man and friend.

              My love to all the members of your family.


Yours Truly

Christopher


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Letter of Congratulations

Gertrude Lim

34 Um Tal See Road

Singapore 474034

30 July 2003


My dear Catherine,

                       Congratulations for having successfully attained your degree. 

                       I am one of those who have watched you study hard and make so many sacrifices. Well, finally it has all paid off. I am sure your parents are proud of you. Let me add that as a friend, I am proud of you too. I think I can safely say, 'It cannot happen to a better person. I hope to meet you soon and convey my best wishes in person.

                      Please convey my best regards to your parents. My congratulations are to them also.


Yours Truly

Gertrude Lim


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Letter-I


Margaret Tham

56 Aljunied Drive

Singapore 473956

6 October 2003


The Manager

Oliver's Departmental Store

12 Oliver Road

Singapore 749412


Dear Sir

I have been a patron of Oliver's since it opened its doors in 1999. The reasons are obvious: I get good service, or rather, I used to get good service. 

            It has been my misfortune to shop at your departmental store last Saturday. I went to the cosmetic counter to buy some toiletries for my wife. First of all, I was aghast at the attitude of the sales ladies who were manning the place. They were busy chatting and were not the least interested in paying any attention to me. In fact when I called one of them and asked for an item, she said, 'You find it yourself ! and went back to chatting with her friend. I have her name: Isabella. At this point, I walked out in disgust and am determined that I will never shop with you again.

Thank you.


Yours Faithfully

Margaret Tham


Letter-II


Lim Ah Siew

Block 34 Jalan Maria

#09-344

Singapore 234344

23 September 2003


Housing Development Board

Changi Area Office

122 Lower Changi Road

Singapore 484823


Dear Sir,

            I am one of those who have the pleasure of living in the HDB estate under the care of your area office. I am pleased to inform you that in the twelve years I have lived here, I am generally satisfied with the way the estate and the area office are being administrated. However, now I have a matter of grave importance to bring to your attention.

             On 9 August, I was at your office to renew my car park permit. I started queuing at about nine o'clock in the morning, before the office opened. For some unknown reason, the counter which issues the permits did not start work until ten o'clock. I cannot think of any reason for this as your notice to me clearly says that the office opens at nine o'clock. As a result of what happened, I arrived at my office an hour late, and met the displeasure of my boss.

            I would appreciate an explanation to the absurd situation that seems to have risen at our area office.

Thank you.


Yours Sincerely

Lim Ah Siew


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A Letter Declining an Invitation

S6 Sremban Road

Sevedan

West Malaysia

7 June 2003


My dear Samsiah,

           All of us here are fine and we hope that it is the same with you. Thank you for your letter and for your invitation

I am sorry but I have to decline your generous invitation and forego the opportunity of spending a whole month with you. Belleve me, I would rather be with you than anywhere else on earth.

           I have to decline because my father has got a new job and will be starting work soon. It is out of this state and we are moving to Penang to be with him. At a time when so many things are happening. I cannot be away, can I?

           A piece of good news though. I can spend the holidays with you in November. We can decide later whether I will come to your country or you to mine.

           Please convey my best regards to your family and wish your father and mother a good holiday in Egypt.


Yours Sincerely

Latakumari


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Latakumari

S6 Sremban Road

Seremban

West Malaysia

7 June 2003


My dear Samsiah,

           All of us here are fine and we hope that it is the same with you. Thank you for your letter and for your invitation.

           Yes! I will be thrilled to spend the holidays with you. Both my father and mother have agreed. I think they are happy to get me out of the house for a while. I am a little sad that your parents and that little pest (as you call your brother) will not be around. I would have liked to be with them too. Please convey my best wishes to them for a nice holiday in Egypt.

           I will arrive by train on 15 June 2003. Please do not bother to meet me. I think I can find your house rather easily. I am really, really looking forward to staying with you.

Till we meet, bye.


Yours Sincerely

Latakumari


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Samsiah Bujang

34 Jalan Siap

Singapore 232334

25 May 2003


My dear Lata,

           How are you getting on? How about your family? Fine, I hope. Here we are all fine and getting ready for the school holidays.

I have got fantastic news. Both my father and mother are going on a long holiday to Egypt. They want to see the pyramids and guess what, they have agreed that you may come and stay with me for the holidays.

          I am glad to extend to you an invitation to come and spend your holidays with me. Please write and inform me of your acceptance and the date you can come and so on. Just imagine, all the time to ourselves. What about that little pest, my brother? No problem, he is going to Malaysia to stay with our aunt, so it is only you and I in the house for a month.

Please write soon.


Yours Truly

Samsiah


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Lesson Plan for Kinds of adjectives

 Students' Learning Outcomes

Classify adjectives of quantity, quality, size, shape, colour and origin.

Information for Teachers




  • Adjectives are describing words. They tell us more about nouns, for example, Ali (noun) is brave (adjective) boy. In this example 'brave' is telling us more about 'Ali'.
  • Adjectives are of different kinds. They are of quantity, quality, size, shape, colour and origin.
  • While teaching the lesson, the teacher should also consult textbook at all steps where and when applicable.

Material / Resources

board, chalk/marker, textbook, pencil, flower, ball, cap, bag
Introduction

Show the students a ball and ask them to describe it by using different adjectives. Record the responses of the students on the board. Ask them to tell about its colour, shape, size, quality and it is made in which country, for example, China, Pakistan, etc.




When they have described the ball show them a bag (your bag, any student's bag) and ask them to describe it.



blue / brown / black, soft / hard, nice / attractive, made of fine / thick material, Chinese / Pakistani, small / big etc,
  • Then ask them to describe a flower.




• Same activity can be repeated with other objects like comb, table, chair, flower, duster or anything easily available in the classroom.

Development

Activity 1

  • Tell the students that adjectives are describing words which describe a noun or a pronoun.
  • Draw the following table on the board and explain different kinds of adjectives.


  • This table can be displayed in the class for help of the students.
  • Refer back to the introductory activity and tell them how they have already been told about these kinds of adjectives.
Activity 2
  • Ask the students to copy the following table in their notebooks. They must work in pairs and think about any three things and fill the table with different kinds of adjectives.
  • The first one is done as an example.





Activity 3

  • Ask the students to prepare a 4-6 line conversation between a father and a child. The father calls from the market to ask what kind of a toy the child wants, and the child gives details.
For example:
Father: Amna, I am at the toy store I have forgotten what kind of a doll you wanted.
Amna: Father, I want a big doll,
Father: I can see one wearing a pink dress, is that okay?
Amna: No, get me one wearing purple dress.
Father: The purple one is made of cloth.
Amna: Yes, that's fine. I like such dolls because they are soft
Father: Okay, I am going to buy it for you now.
Amna: Thank you, father.

Sum up / Conclusion

Briefly discuss the different types of adjectives with examples.

Assessment

  • Ask the students to underline the adjectives in the following sentences and then tell to which kind of adjectives they belong.

1. I have a small cupboard.
2. It is an empty bottle.
3. I like fresh fruit/juice.
4. My cat has blue eyes.
5. The tiger has sharp teeth.
6. I do not like round tables.
7. She needs some flowers to decorate the wall.

Answers:
(small, empty, fresh, blue, sharp, round,
some)
  • Involve the students in solving the problems given in the exercise at the end of unit/chapter.
Follow up

  • Ask them to write five adjectives about any of their toys like doll, car, bat, etc. or any animal they like.
  • Ask the students to add adjectives in the following sentences to make them more interesting.
1. I cannot drive your ______________ car,
2. She went to the store to buy _______________ bread.
3. I saw a _____________ bird.
4. We ate ________________  pizza.
5. I have a _______________ bag.