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Showing posts with label Articles. Show all posts

Scheme of Studies for Single National Curriculum Pakistan

 Components of Scheme of Studies

1. Subjects to be taught from Early Childhood Care & Education to Intermediate 


2. Subject-Wise Weightage

3. Medium of Instruction.

4. Allocation of Periods and Marks for various subjects

5. Weightage of Theory and Practical Periods

6. Co- urricular Activities c

7. Weightage of Skills Physical and Activities and Sports

8. Mode of Assessment / Evaluation

Aims and Objectives of Scheme of Studies

1. To prescribe the subjects to be taught to various Grades to impart high quality 

student-centered learning.

2. To transform School Education with added emphasis on Science, Technology 

Engineering Art and Mathematics (STEAM subjects), integration of core subjects 

and 21st century skills and skillful application of emerging trends, modern 

concepts, technical knowledge and innovative activities.

3. To promote awareness about National Integration, Patriotism, Islamic Ideology 

and its impact on socio-economic development and security of the country.

4. To produce disciplined, motivated and enlightened youth with high moral 

character, sound ethical values and resilience to face adversities and challenges.

5. To produce creative, constructive and critical thinking individuals imbued with 

Quaid-e-Azam’s & Allama Iqbal’s vision with in-depth understanding of 

technology-driven knowledge economy.

6. To bridge the gap between Public Sector & Private Sector Educational 

Institutions and Deeni Madaris. 

Highlights of Scheme of Studies

1. Early Childhood Care & Education (Pre 1) has been specied for Pre Primary age 

of 4-5 years with the scope to expand and include Pre Primary age of 3-4 years.

2. Medium of instruction has been revised as under:

a. Pre 1 : Urdu / English 

b. Primary : English for Mathematics and General Science. Urdu 

for other subjects.

c. Middle : English for Mathematics, Computer Education and 

General Science. Urdu for other subjects

d. Secondary : English for Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, Biology, 

General Science, Computer Science and Medical 

Related Technologies / Engineering Related 

Technologies / Technical & Vocational Education. 

Urdu for other subjects. 

e. Higher Secondary: English for Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, 

Medica l and Allied Health Technologies / 

Engineering Technologies / Technical & Vocational 

Education and Agriculture / Veterinary & Animal 

Sciences. Urdu for other subjects.

3. Concept of STEAM subjects as envisioned by the Government of the Punjab has 

been introduced as under:

 a. A new group of STEAM subjects namely Medical Related Technologies / 

Engineering Related Technologies / Technical & Vocational Education 

Group has been introduced for Grades IX-X.

 b. Three new groups of STEAM subjects have been introduced for Grades

XI-XII as under: 

 (1) Medical & Allied Health Technologies / Engineering

 Technologies / Technical & Vocational Education Group

 (2) Agriculture / Veterinary & Animal Sciences Group

 (3) Applied Arts Group

4. An effort has been made to bridge the gap between Public Sector & Private Sector 

Educational Institutions and Deeni Madaris through introduction of a balanced 

programme of studies with emerging trends, modern concepts & technological 

Highlights of Scheme of StudiesScheme of Studies 6

innovations keeping in view the best national interest and career requirements 

of the students.

5. Teaching of Holy Quran has been introduced as Part-II of Islamiat for Grades I–V 

and VI – XII.

6. For non-Muslim students, Religious Education has been introduced in place of 

Ethics & Morality for Grades I-XII.

7. Humanities and General Group for Grades IX-X and XI-XII has been developed 

as Humanities, Social Sciences and General Group after adding relevant subjects 

of studies.

8. Commerce Group has been developed as Business and Commerce Group for 

Grades XI-XII .

9.. Personality development and life skills have been introduced through Sports 

and Co-curricular activities as under:-

a. Boy Scouts/Girl Guides, Bazm-e-Adab, Physical Education and Games & 

Sports for Grades VI-VIII. 

b. Civil Defense/Nursing & First Aid, Community Service and Games & 

Sports for Grades IX-X.

c. NCC / Women Guard, Unarmed Combat & Martial Arts, Community 

Service and Games & Sports for Grades XI-XII.Scheme of Studies.

Core Subjects

1. Core subjects for Early Childhood Care & Education (Pre 1) are Urdu, English and 


2. Core subjects for Grades I-III are Urdu, English, Mathematics, Islamiat and 

General Knowledge (General Science and Social Studies). 

3. Core subjects for Grades IV-V are Urdu, English, Mathematics, Islamiat , General 

Science and Social Studies. 

4. Core subjects for Grades VI-VIII are Urdu, English, Mathematics, Islamiat, 

Computer Education, General Science, History and Geography besides elective 

Arabic / Persian / Punjabi /Functional English / Functional Urdu / Art & 

Drawing/ Essentials of Home Economics /Agriculture. 

5. Core subjects for Science Group of Grades IX-X are Urdu, English, Islamiat, 

Pakistan Studies, Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry and Biology / Computer 

Science & ICT .

6. Core subjects for Humanities Social Sciences & General Group of Grades IX-X are 

Urdu, English, Islamiat , Pakistan Studies, two Elective subjects from any one sub 

Group of Humanities Social Sciences & General Group, besides General 

Mathematics and General Science.

7. Core subjects for Medical related Technologies / Engineering related 

Technologies / Technical and Vocational Education Group of Grades IX-X are 

Urdu, English, Islamiat, Pakistan Studies, Medical related Technologies / 

Engineering Related Technologies / Technical & Vocational Education, besides 

Physics, Chemistry and Biology/Mathematics.

8. Core subjects for Pre-Medical Group of Grades XI-XII are Urdu, English, Islamiat, 

Pakistan Studies, Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Computer Science & ICT / 


9. Core subjects for Pre-Engineering Group of Grades XI-XII are Urdu, English, 

Islamiat, Pakistan Studies, Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics and Computer 

Science & ICT.

10. Core subjects for Medical & Allied Health Technologies / Engineering 

Technologies / Technical & Vocational Education Group of Grades XI-XII are 

Urdu, English, Islamiat, Pakistan Studies, Medical and Allied Health 

Core Subjects8 Scheme of Studies

Technologies / Engineering Technologies / Technical and Vocational Education, 

besides Physics, Chemistry and Biology / Mathematics.

11. Core subjects for Agriculture / Veterinary & Animal Sciences Group of Grades XIXII are Urdu, English, Islamiat, Pakistan Studies, Agriculture / Veterinary & 

Animal Sciences, besides Physics, Chemistry and Biology.

12. Core subjects for General Science Group of Grades XI-XII are Urdu, English, 

Islamiat, Pakistan Studies and a combination of three subjects with Mathematics, 

out of Statistics, Physics, Economics and Computer Science & ICT, besides 

Education & Pedagogical Skills.

13. Core subjects for Humanities, Social Sciences & General Group of Grades XI-XII 

are Urdu, English, Islamiat , Pakistan Studies and three electives out of any one 

sub Group of Humanities, Social Sciences & General Group, besides Computer 

Science & ICT /Education & Pedagogical Skills.

14. Core subjects for Business & Commerce Group of Grades XI-XII are Urdu, 

English, Islamiat, Pakistan Studies, Business & Commerce, Banking-Accounting 

& Finance, Management & Marketing besides Computer Science & ICT.

15. Core subjects for Home Economics Group of Grades XI-XII are Urdu, English, 

Islamiat, Pakistan Studies and six subjects from Home Economics besides 

Computer Science & ICT / Mathematics.

16. Core subjects for Islamic Studies Group of Grades XI-XII are Urdu, English, 

Islamiat , Pakistan Studies, Arabic & Quranic studies, Advanced Islamic Studies, 

Muslim History & Culture, besides Computer Science & ICT.

17. Core subjects for Applied Arts Group of Grades XI-XII are Urdu, English, 

Islamiat, Pakistan Studies and six subjects from Applied Arts, besides Computer 

Science & ICT.9 Scheme of Studies

Format of the Curriculum Document

Curriculum will be developed for every subject given in the scheme of studies as per 

following format:

a. Introduction: Rationale, process of curriculum development, key learning areas 

and standards.

b. Transition of Scheme of Studies for relevant subject into curriculum, textbooks 

and dissemination of knowledge & skills to the students.

c. Grade-wise learning units distribution matrix.

d. Details of themes and sub-themes and Grade wise student learning outcomes.

e. Teaching and learning strategies.

f. Assessment and Evaluation.

g. Guidelines for authors and reviewers for developing textbooks and teaching & 

learning material.

h. Details of practical and lab works and suggested activities, if applicable.

i. Composition of the Curriculum Draft / Review Committee. 


Textbooks will be prepared in the light of curriculum as per Policy of the Government.

Assessment & Evaluation System

1. Students will be assessed by the concerned educational institution in various 

subjects for Grades I – VIII at the end of each academic year, besides quarterly 

tests. However, for Grades IX – XII examination will be conducted by the 

respective BISE/ Wafaq-ul-Madaris.

2. The existing examination system will be gradually transformed into curriculum 

based evaluation under a phased programme.

3. Ability of a private candidate in performing practical work will be assessed 

during the examination conducted by BISE / Wafaq-ul-Madaris as per 

guidelines issued by the Government.

Implementation Strategy

1. Implementation of newly introduced STEAM subjects as per directions of the 

Government will require timely provision of sufcient labs and subject teachers. In 

this context, School Education Department will ensure adequate coordination 

amongst PCTB, QAED, PEC Directorate of Education, BISE, Punjab Educational 

Equipment Centre and TEVTA etc. besides advising the school administration to 

maintain close liaison with local community, industry and hospitals etc. for arranging 

educational tours for the students.

2. Necessary guidance, counseling and technical & professional advice will be 

provided to the students up to Higher Secondary level by the concerned teachers. In 

this regard a booklet on “Guidance & Counseling” will be provided to all the 

Educational Institutions.

Salient Features of Single National Curriculum 2021 Pakistan

 Curriculum is like a map that shows the learning path to students & teachers and 

determines the process of learning. Curriculum revision and development is generally 

a continuous and dynamic process, including need assessment, planning, designing, 

teacher training, materials development, their piloting, their revision and 

modification, implementing, monitoring, feedback, evaluation and assessment. The 

revision of of Single National Curriculum 2021 Pakistan is generally based on the 

following broader areas or parameters: 

a. Scheme of Studies 

b. Ideological Requirements 

c. Aims of Education and Policies 

d. Educational Standards for Various Levels 

e. Language Policy 

f. Medium of Instruction 

g. Educational Technology including ICT 

h. Teachers and their Professional Development ix. Examinations and Continuous School Assessment 

i. Textbooks and Supplementary Reading Materials 

j. Assessment of Learning Achievements 

k. School Environment 

l. Moral and Ethical Development of Learners 

m. Health and Physical Education 

n. Cultural and Regional Diversity, Religious and Gender Sensitivities in 

Curriculum and Textbooks 

o. Inclusive Education 

p. Systemic changes and adaptations 

q. Inclusion of special issues like Environmental Education involving 

Sanitation, Safe & Pure Drinking Water and Hygiene, Food & Nutrition, Life Skills Based Education, Inter-Faith Harmony, Human Rights Education, Peace and Value Education, Child Rights, Child Abuse, Gender Awareness, Women Empowerment, Population and Development, Education,  Prevention Education, Disaster Risk and Crisis Management against HIV and other Fatal Diseases and other emerging trends etc.

Other Important Links:

Scheme of Studies for Single National Curriculum Pakistan

Salient Features of Single National Curriculum 2021 Pakistan

How to Use LMS Software for the Government teachers of Punjab Province

Download Books of Punjab Textbook Board for all classes 

Difference between Curriculum, Syllabus and Course

Types of Curriculum

Minimum Roles of a Teacher

 The circumstances for all the teachers all over the world are not same. Mostly in developing countries, they are facing a lot of problems such as low salaries, less resources, non-cooperative and unprofessional management and low social status. Keeping in mind these problems, a teacher needs to carry out following roles at least.

Updated Knowledge

Minimum requirement for a teacher is to keep his knowledge up to date. It is compulsory as every day there is a new research and changes in the existing knowledge. So, if a teacher does not keep himself in touch with new and updated knowledge, then he is not doing justice with his profession. Student who is a product based on such type of teaching will not be able to compete the international market. Already, it is obvious that poor countries are not only poor economically but also have poor education system which is the main reason of their decline. So, it is very important for a teacher to keep his knowledge up to date.

Activity Based Teaching

I have a point of view that it is very unrealistic to demand a daily, systematic lesson plan from a teacher who is facing above mentioned problems. But I am strongly in favor of presenting content through at least one or two well integrated activities. So, a teacher should not compromise on activity based teaching. According to me, this is the crux of teaching. 

Learner Centered and Communicative Approach

If as a teacher, you want your learners to be confident, creative, productive and independent, there is no alternative to this approach. They should be given chances to explore themselves because every individual is born with different abilities and potentials, so we should confine them to only according to our own single way of thinking.

Variation in Methodology

Teacher should keep on varying the teaching methodology according to the topic and the subject because each topic and subject has its own unique nature and requirement. Same method each time will not serve the purpose and students will become demotivated. For example, you cannot teach science just through book reading. Instead you use methods like demonstration, heuristic or projects etc. 

Reflective Teaching

Being reflective is key to success for a teacher. Without it teaching will be stagnant and consequently will have results accordingly. A reflective teacher carries out reflection of his work through proven and systematic reflective techniques and methods and he modify his activities and work in the light of authentic and valuable reflection. He knows about more than one ways of reflection.

Keeping Level with Students 

Sometimes unknowingly, teacher does not keep in mind the level of students such as age or grade, and consequently, it leads to an understanding gap between student and teacher. Students will lose their interest and there will be no learning. So, a teacher should keep in mind the level of the students while teaching.

In a nutshell, above given are the minimum roles which are compulsory for a teacher to perform to justify his teaching.

Other Related Links:

Effect of Physical Development on Mental and Moral Development

 In 1956, Benjamin Bloom presented three aspects of human development with respect to learning objectives:

1- Cognitive Domain (mental development)

2- Affective Domain (moral development)

3- Psychomotor Domain (physical development)

After that, and even before, the most importance was given to cognitive development as compared to other two domains, particularly in under developing countries. Physical development was least focused.

The point is that Physical development is equally important as other two domains are. In addition to this physical development not only cover physical aspect but also helps in mental and moral development. 

When children play games and sports, they follow certain rules and they learn how to obey rules for mutual benefit. They learn to cooperate, help and teamwork. Moreover, they learn qualities the qualities of patience and tolerance. They learn how to behave in the situations of victory and defeat. In this way, their moral development gets addressed automatically. This the only concrete way of getting children developed morally.

Participating in sports and games also has positive and pleasant effect on human mind. For sometime, a sportsman forgets all pressures and problems of his life, and gets relaxed. This makes and keeps his mind strong and healthy. His mind gets practice how to perform in uneven situations of life. His intelligence quotient improves. So, in this way, physical activities also improve the human mentally. 

In a nutshell, physical development is very important for the development of children even for the mental and moral development.

In 1971, Simpson presented following 7 stages of psychomotor domain:

1- Perception 

2- Set

3- Guided Response 

4- Mechanism 

5- Complex Over Response 

6- Adaptation 

7- Origination 

In 1970, Dave presented following 5 stages of psychomotor domain:

1- Imitation 

2- Manipulation 

3- Precision

4- Articulation 

5- Naturalisation 

Other Related Links:

Language, Mind and Thought

 Language, mind and thought! From where to start? I make a yardstick, which came first ? The answer is mind. Because every human comes in this world with a brain physically and the main role of the brain is to think,  and that process is called mind, and the product is thought. Now another question arises, why brain does the act of thinking? From the very first day of his birth, a human tries to fulfill or at least urges for some basic needs like food. Here the thinking process starts. So, to express these needs, the baby does some action or gestures e.g. he starts weeping. So, if we arrange the all steps, the sequence is needs, mind, thought and then expression. So, to express some needs or feelings, language can be used as a means or tool instead of gestures.

Now, let’s discuss the idea that language shapes thought. It can be correct to some extent Because thought is an abstract thing, and to present it to others, you need to give it some form which can be understandable and that role plays the language. So, in other words, you can say that it gives shape to thought. Language can affect the intensity of thought through devices like euphemism etc but it can not change the core concept. So, that is the limitation of a language.

Another role of language is propaganda language. Some people say that propaganda language changes thought. If we closely examine the different examples in history like Nazim, it was not only language but fear and terror were more prominent to control the people's behaviour. 

In short, language is mere a tool to express thought and this tool can be used intelligently to get desired results of communication.

False Expectations About Students' Results

 It is commonly observed that teachers and parents expect high and same results for every child which is unrealistic. There are a number of factors which support my argument. Such factors are:

  • Individual Differences
  • Reliability of Test
  • Against the Multiple Intelligence Theory etc.

1- Individual Differences

As we all know that there are always individual differences or diversity among students in a number of ways such as physically, morally, mentally, ethnically, socially etc. Then, how we can not expect same marks for every student? It is unnatural, unrealistic and illogical. 

2- Reliability of Test

Same marks for every student in the test can question the reliability of the test. Because, a good test brings diverse results among students. The results of a good and reliable test are always equally distributed among low, average and high performances. So again, my argument is supported also in this way.

3- Against the Multiple Intelligence Theory

It is also against the gardener's multiple intelligence theory which claims different IQs for different areas of knowledge. According to this theory, a child has different IQ level for different subjects which means that if a child is good at mathematics does not ensures that he or she will also be good at languages. This also proves my stance against the parents and teachers' unrealistic expectations about students' results.


Consequences of these false expectations by teachers and parents are by far damaging for the students and have negative effects on them. They can carry serious psychological problems and this can worsen their performance. So, I suggest parents and teachers to get out of this and let the students flourish and grow on their own pace and interests. In this way, they will explore their own potential and the legend. 

Other Related Links:

Role of Motivation in Teaching and Learning


According to Mathis and Jackson, motivation is an emotion or desire operating on a person’s will and causing that person to act.

According to Berelson and Steiner, it is an inner state that activates or moves. Motivation involves effort, persistence and goals.

Jones states that motivation is concerned with how behavior gets started, is energized, is sustained, is directed, is stopped and what kind of subjective reaction is present in the organism while all this is going on.

According to Kelly, motivation ‘has to do with the forces that maintain and alter the direction, quality and intensity of behavior.

According to Mondy, Holmes and Flippa, motivation is the process of influencing or stimulating a person to take action that will accomplish desired goal

Importance and Types of Motivation

Motivation plays a very important role in teaching and learning. Because, until the students are not ready, it is impossible to make them learn anything. Though, its output is not concrete one and it is difficult to measure it quantitatively, but it can be integrated into every aspect of teaching and learning. Before we discuss it further, it is necessary to know two different types of motivation. These two types of motivation are:

1- Intrinsic Motivation

2- Extrinsic motivation

1- Intrinsic Motivation

Intrinsic motivation is the one which emerges from inside, feeling the importance of something and consequently, doing that task willfully. For this type of motivation, a lot of effort is required on the part of teacher, and he needs to very skillful and expert in this. This type of motivation is long lasting and becomes permanent part of one’s personality. For this type of motivation, no physical resources are required. For example, it can be aroused just by giving positive and constructive feedback or making your lesson more comprehensive. It can also be produced by presenting the importance of desired task in daily life.

2- Extrinsic motivation

Extrinsic motivation is produced through some worldly desires or temporary benefits such as money, gifts etc. It is also important type of motivation and can help us in such situations where we feel that it is difficult to produce intrinsic motivation. So, the right and timely use of both types of motivation can make our teaching successful and fruitful.

Some people also categorize motivation as positive and negative but I take it as unnecessary and just as a sake of making more types of motivation. Only positive and negative feedbacks have different effects on motivation. 

Famous Theories of Motivation

  • Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
  • Herzberg’s two factor theory
  • Alderfer’s ERG theory
  • Self-determination theory
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Assessment and the teacher's needs

 Assessment is very important element of education. It not only checks the progress of the student's learning but it also enhances their ability to learn different things. But to get full benefits of assessment, one needs to an expert at assessment. It is equally beneficial for both  teachers and students. So, the role of assessment is very diverse in education. 

For teachers, assessment play a very important role for their own reflection. On the regular basis, they can check how far they are successful in achieving the objectives of their lessons. Assessment can help them modify their lessons and plan for the future lessons. So, the teachers should integrate assessment in their own reflection. 

For students, assessment is a very important reflection of their learning but it all depends how they carry out assessment and how they provide feedback on student's work. It can both way, constructive or destructive. A construction and productive feedback can ease the motivation of the students whereas a negative feedback can hinder the progress of the students, and can demotivate them. It all depends on their expertise in providing feedback. Assessment not only monitors the progress of the students but also speed up their progress. 

To get the full benefits of assessment, teachers should be expert in these areas:

First and the most important thing is to be familiar with the concept of assessment and its types. As there are different types of assessment like summative, formative, diagnostic and placement etc, two of these are very important for a teacher to know deeply. Each of these have different roles. So, unless the teacher does know the roles of each type of assessment can not fully benefited from assessment. In some schools or area of the world, the focus is more on summative assessment which only judges the ability of students unlike formative assessment which serves the wide purposes rather than mere judgments. Formative assessment not only checks the progress of the students but also increases their understanding of the certain topics. So, the teacher's expertise in assessment is very important. 

Secondly, the teachers should be expert in educational measurement which is the very important step of assessment. Measurement provides the different ways and the tools of collecting data for feedback and discussion. Different tools of assessment are tests, quizzes, worksheets, assignments and  projects etc. Teacher should know how to prepare a measurement tool to cater different ability groups of students. They should also know how to develop concept oriented measurement rather than simply measuring the memories of the students. For this purpose, they need to know different taxonomies of learning objectives. One of the most beneficial and widely used taxonomy is Bloom Taxonomy. It provides a systematic framework for all the three domains of human development i.e. physical, moral and mental. 

In short, assessment is one of the major elements of educational process and without knowing and getting expert in the all above given areas of assessment, a teacher can not get full benefits of the process of assessment. 

Other Related Links:

English as a Lingua Franca

          English has become a global language and has taken the status of lingua franca due to its wide spread and use. English is the third largest language of the world after Chinese and Spanish, in terms of the native speakers or first language speakers with about 370 million native speakers. With about two billion speakers, English is widely spoken language all over the world. The countries such as United Kingdom, United States, Canada, Australia, Jamaica, New Zealand and Ireland speak English as a native language. The countries where English has legal status as a primary language such as Australia, New Zealand, Canada, United Kingdom, United States, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Philippines and Trinidad and Tobago. The countries which speak English as a second language are: Poland, Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Finland, Estonia, Germany, Singapore and Austria. English being lingua Franca and a global language has a great impact on economic, social and cultural aspects of the global world. 

          English being the business communication language in most part of the world and at international level, has great importance in economic terms. Almost all the big companies and organizations use English as a communication tool all over the world. Following are the countries in which English is widely spoken as business language such as Philippines, Norway, Serbia, Slovenia, Australia, Malaysia, India, Lithuania, Singapore and Canada.

          Culture and language go side by side and always have effects on each other. Culture and society shape language and language shapes society and culture. Language never come alone but it brings culture with it. English due to its worldwide importance is ranked high in under developing countries in terms of social status. Even it determines the social class difference in under developing countries. So, English as a second language is popular all over the world. As far as social value of English is concerned, in most part of the world, English is considered the language of high class and it is the symbol of high status particularly in underdeveloped countries where English is a second language.

          English being the business communication language in most part of the world and at international level, has great importance in economic terms. Almost all the big companies and organizations use English as a communication tool all over the world. One of the important factor of getting employed in different organizations and countries is being good at English language. English is the dominant business language and it has become almost a necessity for people to speak English if they are to enter a global workforce, research from all over the world shows that cross-border business communication is most often conducted in English. Its importance in the global business market cannot be ignored, learning English really can change your life.

          Following are the regions and international bodies in which English is upheld as a recognized language such as Rwanda, Liberian, Philippines, Marshall Islands, Palau, Commonwealth of Nations and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). English is one of the official languages of the United Nations, the European Union, NAFTA, African Union, Organization of Islamic Cooperation, Caribbean Community, Union of South American Nations and many other international organizations.

          English is being used as a medium of instruction in most of educational institutions all over the world. Most of the world knowledge and research is presented through English language. ESL profession is spreading rapidly due to increasing numbers of learners of English as a second language. A number of employment opportunities are available in this profession.

Implementing Task-Based Language Teaching to Integrate Language Skills in an ESL Program


Many researchers have presented the Benefits of incorporating language abilities in English language teaching. They are of the point view that learning English is more effective when students learn the four abilities in one session where the learners will probably utilize the language in their daily lives. TBLT provides opportunities to practice speaking, reading, listening, and writing via purposeful jobs that involve learners in practical and operational utilization of l2. Consequently, TBLT boosts and promotes the integration of skills by finishing daily-life activities that enhance students' communicative competence because it provides learners the prospect of practicing the target language consistently. The students get as an chance to explore active course exercises that bring up real life communication where they solve problems and carry out creative pursuits.

The characteristics of TBLT mentioned Above indicate that this methodology promotes actual language use which facilitates the integration of their speech skills successfully. Nunan (1999) says that TBLT requires listening, speaking, reading, and writing in the same exercise to complete the problem given in the endeavor. The use of this method in course generally brings real-life work that allows the practice of all the language skills. The students get a chance to explore different communicative situations inside and beyond the classroom, which promote the custom of terminology by carrying out tasks that are closely related to the regular life. Nunan (2005) also claims that TBLT is a strategy that produces language abilities integration. It helps students comprehend, create, manipulate, or interact in the classroom.

Tasks in Language Learning

In English language learning, tasks are considered as an Important component to attain proficiency and to facilitate the learning of a foreign or second language by raising students' activity in the classroom. This way, a task aims at stimulating a natural desire in learners to maximize their language proficiency by giving them a struggle to complete clear, purposeful, and real life tasks that speed up the learning of grammar and the language abilities. Such tasks require the teacher to set the prerequisites for successful conclusion, define the goals of the task, and provide different classroom practices which don't take place in an English class in a usual circumstance.

Task Implementation

The process to implement TBLT in English courses has been Highly discussed among various language theorists. They emphasize that there are three major actions to do a task. First is that the "pre-task point" where the teacher introduces the topic and provides the directions such as the articles, the objectives for every one of the measures within the endeavor, and the way to present it. Referring to this stage, Littlewood (2004) suggest that this stage creates an overview of what the students will need to understand to accomplish all of the demands of the assignment. Additionally, Skehan (1998) suggests that this stage is an overview or introduction about all of the rules learners need to follow to finish the jobs correctly. Often, this phase of job development can be used to pick the topic of the endeavor, plan the way the pupils will exhibit their job, or to think about the standards to assess the outcomes of the task and also to determine actions to be taken regarding the performance of the students.

Ellis (2006) suggests the "during Task" stage as the following step; he says two basic things should be done. First of all, the analysis ought to be made of the way the endeavor is going to be developed, and secondly, the analysis of the means by which the job will possibly be completed. Seedhouse (1999) says it is necessary to direct the students while they are doing the job, ask the students to demonstrate their progress on what they are studying, composing, what videos they are listening to, or check if they're listening to what has been provided to the mind as a final stage, provide meaningful feedback to them. Numrich (1996) and Junker (1960) add that, at this level, learners have to be amenable to make modifications to their reports and presentations. At this stage, the students negotiate among themselves to answer questions in the teacher and members of the group, review articles, and reset those areas that need to be improved upon to submit their report.

The final moment are the "post-task" stage. Lynch (2001) affirms this moment requires the analysis and edition of the observations, opinions, and recommendations from this team and the teacher about the operation of learners in the job outcomes. In regard to this stage, Ellis (2014) considers that after the students have conducted the job it's crucial to reassess their mistakes; this can be done by asking the whole group about the operation of their classmates, checking the instructor's notes, or asking students to self-evaluate their demonstrations. Another important action to consider is to invite students to enhance the probable mistakes and to assign follow-up activities. In addition, Willis (1996) comments that this stage motivates learners to automatize their production, make conclusions about the outcomes of the endeavor, and assess which strategy to follow to ensure progress in the language.

Integration of Language Skills

Some current research on teaching English language associates the integration of the four skills with an advancement in the target language. Wallace, Stariha, and Walberg (2004) suggest that the integration of language skills provides natural scenarios in which listening, talking, reading, and writing are developed in one class to enhance English learning. As seen in this perspective, this manner of instructing favors l2 learning since pupils are trained to use the language effectively, in various contexts, purposes, as well as instances. Nunan (1999) also supports this idea by stating that the integration of language skills is essential to develop a genuine communicative competence and improve learners' language proficiency by engaging in linguistic and communicative actions that promote authentic language use.

Dickinson (2010) who state that incorporating language skills eases the development of linguistic (such as grammatical proficiency ) and communicative abilities. Specifically, TBLT provides English courses an emphasis on the integration of their language abilities by providing students with much more exploration and training in every one of the abilities.

In short, the implementation of Task-based language instruction facilitates the integration of the four skills in the English as a foreign language. It can be concluded that task-based language Teaching is a good strategy to be utilized in the marketing of skills integration and language competence

Bitter Realities of Educational System in the Punjab, Pakistan

If you want to discuss education of any part of the world, you can discuss it under following headings.

1- Students and their parents
2- Teachers
3- Administration
4- Management
5- Infrastructure


                  Let's first talk about students and their parents. Due to bad image of public sector schools, everyone in the Punjab who have minimum economical capacity and concern about their children' s education, send them to private schools. Rest of them who have not much concern about their children' s education due to bad economical conditions (which is best described in "Maslow' s Hierarchy of Needs") send them to public schools. Such students have very poor education, language, behavior and  health facilities and environment at home. So, with such clientage, it is impractical to gauze their and their teachers' s performance on the same parameters which we use for private schools where everything is almost ideal. Moreover, if even a single student is increased in a class strength of forty, it becomes another challenge for the teacher, particularly with such unfavourable family background of the students.


                    As far as the teachers are concerned, the equilibrium is shifting. The number of highly qualified teachers is more than less qualified teachers now. As they are well educated, they know their prestige and also care for it. But they are working under pressure due to the traditional and discouraging attitude of the educational managers. They not only teach the students but they also have to cope with the uneducated parents of the students who also need social training. Education managers instead of supporting, develop extra pressure on them due to their own inability and vision less approach.


                                 Administration take their decisions without involving the main stakeholders who are teachers. It is because they negotiate with union leaders who alone are not supposed to be true face and representative of the teachers. So, administration needs to be contact with the teachers who teach in the classroom. Without spending time in the school for at least two or three days, no one can not assess the problems in the school. Opinions of journalists, singers and actors (any layman) should not guide the decisions of educational administrators because it is a very complex subject and only qualified educational professionals can deal with it.


Most educational managers are not well trained according to the 21st century's needs. Even they don't have will to change themselves. So, how we can expect from them to change other's mind. They don't know the benefits of teamwork, rather they rely on authoritative style of management only. They needs to be shuffled with the completely new staff.


This factor cannot affect much if all the above factors can be addressed properly. Moreover this area is improving day by day. Because where dedicated and motivated managers are available, those institutions are facing problems related to this factor.  Because they are using the funds properly, wisely and honestly.