Showing posts with label Curriculum. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Curriculum. Show all posts

Types of Curriculum

 

CHILD OR ACTIVITY CENTERED CURRICULUM

Activity centered curriculum focuses on the learner. So, it is also called learner centered curriculum. It emphasizes on students activities. It is also called as project curriculum or experience curriculum. 

Features:

1. Contents are selected according to the interest of students.

2. It is based on common interest, common activities, common learning. 

3. There is preparation but no pre-planning. 

4. Students and teachers cooperatively plan. 

5. Problem solving is dominant method. 

6. No need of co-curricular activities. 

7. Special subjects for special needs. 

8. Teacher training is needed.

9. Physical characteristics. It needs flexible rooms, playgrounds and buildings to conduct activities. 

10. Classroom need materials for activities. 

11. Transport facility. For visit and observation transport facility is required. 

12. No rigidity in planning. It need flexibility in planning to conduct activities.                                      


Merits:

1- Due to performing activities, students become confident. 

2- Students get durable knowledge. Learning is effective. 

3- Students and teachers work cooperatively. 

4- Education according to the intellect level. 

5- Students learn skills of practical life. 

6- It is innovative organization of the curriculum.


Demerits:

1- Expensive method due to conduct of activities. 

2- Selection of activities is difficult. 

3- No continuity in experiences. 

4- Students work according to their will. 

5- Focus is on activities rather than subject. 

6- Social values are ignored.


SUBJECT CENTERED CURRICULUM

It is the most old and recognized form of a curriculum. In this type, knowledge is presented in the form of subjects. All the subjects are isolated from one another and taught independently e.g., History is taught independently from geography, economics and sociology. 

Features:

1. Organization of Subjects

Contents are selected and organized according to the need of scientists and researchers. 

2.  Focus on explanation 

It focuses on explanatory methods. It includes four principles: 

3- Easy to difficult 

4- Organization of contents 

5- Whole to part

6- Chronological order

7. Compulsory and Elective Subject

Some subjects are compulsory while other are elective. 

8. Experiences are not identical 

9. Courses and programes are preplanned.

10. Individual interest and capabilities are cared. 

11. Teachers should be expert in at least one subject. 

12. Every teacher has a separate classroom.

13. Transportation is provided for trips. 


Merits:

1. Logical Method: Teacher/Subject centered curriculum is the logical method for the presentation and explanation of contents. 

2. Intellectual Development: As the subject is studied logically, it promotes intellectual development. 

3. Benefits from cultural heritage: It helps pupils to attain knowledge gained through the experiences of centuries. 

4. Wide acceptance: It is widely and traditionally accepted over years.

5. Teacher are trained in subject centered curriculum. 

6. Planning is simple & easy.


Demerits:

1. Knowledge is divided into different subjects.

2. Teacher refuses the responsibility other than his own subject. 

3. Due to attainment of knowledge in parts, students overall personality is not developed.

4. Students’ interest is neglected and demand of subject is fulfilled. 

5. Suitable for teachers to present the contents and facts. 

6. Social problems are neglected. 

7. Fails thought provoking.


CORE CURRICULUM 


1. In this type of curriculum, there exists a set of common learnings. 

2. Common learnings include knowledge, skills and values. 

3. These common learnings are provided to all the learners. 

4. These common learnings are expected essential for the learners to function effectively in the society. 

5. These common learnings vary according to different experts. 

6. The common learnings or core usually consists of the following compulsory subjects.

(a) English (b) Mathematics (c) Science (d) Social studies (e) History (f) Geography (g) Physical education 

7. The core curriculum along with compulsory subject also includes optional subjects like.

Fine arts (b) Home economics (c) Language (d) Music etc.

8. It emphasizes that all students would experience a set of common and essential learnings that were necessary for learners to function effectively in society.


 Issues in core curriculum:

1. What should be included in the core? 

2. How large should be the core? 

3. What should be excluded form the core? 

4. Is a core required of all learners? 


INTEGRATED CURRICULUM

In the curriculum broad based, the numbers of subjects increased to seven or eight. Each subject attained its independent status. As a result, the basic skills were thwarted and the basic philosophy of the initial stage i.e. emphasis on skills weakened. Moreover, the use of workbooks in the schools gained strength. The increased number of books and exercise books aggravated the problem further. It becomes difficult for schoolchildren to carry heavy bags. It resulted in mental pressure on a child and the parents of an average income group become hard pressed on a child and the parents of an average income group become hard pressed financially. In order to solve these problems, the Federal Education Ministry started implementing certain measures to improve the situation and taking it as a federal project, developed Model Integrated Curriculum for Classes I-III through experts and local teachers. The curriculum committee extensively reviewed manuscript in its meeting held from 1-4 June, 1985 and made some recommendations and suggestions keeping in view the followings:

1. Reduction of existing curriculum load of the Primary Classes making them easier for the children.

2. Stress on basic skills. 

3. Integration of various subjects such as Social Studies, Science, Islamyiat and Art in a single textbook. 

4. To include, in curriculum, suitable subject matter related to religious duties in light of Mosque School environments. 

5. To give proper place to teaching of language and mathematics. 

6. To suitable integrate different subjects through language and to suggest adequate curricular activities. 


Objectives of Integrated Curriculum:

1- The basic objective of integrated curriculum is to emphasize the learning and basic language skills for the children of class I-III. This would increase the literacy rate of the country. 

2- Reduction of textual books to one or two only so that the teachers may focus their attention on language skills and along with it they may be able to impart the concept of other subjects. 

3- In integrated curriculum, the mental level and interest of the children acquires the central place which is the basic condition of acquiring knowledge. 

4- Interesting textual material not only attracts the children but also provides opportunities to groom up their mental faculties. Therefore efforts have been made to prepare the integrated curriculum with the following comprehensive general objective. 


General Objectives:

1. Teaching of fundamental learning skills. Listening, speaking, reading and writing.

2. To acquaint with the social environment to highlight social role of the individual and to develop adaptability to the changing circumstances.

3. To develop love and acquaintance with Islamic faith and to train the children accordance with Islamic values. 

4. Develop observation, curiosity, sense of inquiry, capability to solve problems a to inspire creative talents among the children.

5. To inculcate love for the country.


Other Important Links:

Scheme of Studies for Single National Curriculum Pakistan

Salient Features of Single National Curriculum 2021 Pakistan

How to Use LMS Software for the Government teachers of Punjab Province

Download Books of Punjab Textbook Board for all classes 

Difference between Curriculum, Syllabus and Course

Types of Curriculum











Difference between Curriculum, Syllabus and Course

 Curriculum 

Curriculum is sum of all:

1- The planned learning opportunities offered to the learners by educational institution.

2-  The experiences learners encounter when curriculum is implemented.

3- Activities that educators have device for learners and are represented in the form of written document.

4- The process whereby a teachers make decisions to implement those activities by interaction with learner resources, and the learning environment.

Briefly, a curriculum includes:

1- A detailed statement of Curriculum intent (Aims, goals, objectives)

2-  List of contents

3- Learning activities (Methods)

4- Evaluation procedures.

Syllabus

A syllabus is typically a list of content areas which are to be assessed. Sometimes, the list is extended to include a number of objectives and learning activities. Syllabus is clearly intended to be a subsection of curriculum. The organizations involved in the construction of curriculum produce syllabus documents.

A syllabus includes:

1- Objectives

2- List of subjects

3- List of content (topics, subtopic)

4- List of recommended books

5- List of recommended teaching methods.

Course 

It is a set of subjects with detailed description of the contents e.g., course of 8th class. The course of 8th class includes all the subjects with detailed description in the form of books. Course of 8th class includes textbooks of English, Urdu, Islamiat, Mathematics.




Other Important Links:

Scheme of Studies for Single National Curriculum Pakistan

Salient Features of Single National Curriculum 2021 Pakistan

How to Use LMS Software for the Government teachers of Punjab Province

Download Books of Punjab Textbook Board for all classes 

Difference between Curriculum, Syllabus and Course

Types of Curriculum