Showing posts with label Trainings. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Trainings. Show all posts

Evidence Based Feedback Explained

 

 Hattie & Timperley and Black &William Models Suggest that the evidence based feedback should follow following steps:


1-  Where is the learner going?

 2- Where is the learner now?

3-  How does the learner get there?


Feedback Sources:
  • Teacher
  • Peers
  • Student self reflection

Support:
  •  from colleagues
  •  from leadership

Benefits:
  •  Increases student effort. 
  •  Leads to effective learning strategies.
  •  Provides evidence about students’ learning.
  •  Teacher can have their own reflection and can make adjustment in future lesson plan.

Video Explanation

False Expectations About Students' Results

 It is commonly observed that teachers and parents expect high and same results for every child which is unrealistic. There are a number of factors which support my argument. Such factors are:

  • Individual Differences
  • Reliability of Test
  • Against the Multiple Intelligence Theory etc.

1- Individual Differences

As we all know that there are always individual differences or diversity among students in a number of ways such as physically, morally, mentally, ethnically, socially etc. Then, how we can not expect same marks for every student? It is unnatural, unrealistic and illogical. 

2- Reliability of Test

Same marks for every student in the test can question the reliability of the test. Because, a good test brings diverse results among students. The results of a good and reliable test are always equally distributed among low, average and high performances. So again, my argument is supported also in this way.

3- Against the Multiple Intelligence Theory

It is also against the gardener's multiple intelligence theory which claims different IQs for different areas of knowledge. According to this theory, a child has different IQ level for different subjects which means that if a child is good at mathematics does not ensures that he or she will also be good at languages. This also proves my stance against the parents and teachers' unrealistic expectations about students' results.

Consequences

Consequences of these false expectations by teachers and parents are by far damaging for the students and have negative effects on them. They can carry serious psychological problems and this can worsen their performance. So, I suggest parents and teachers to get out of this and let the students flourish and grow on their own pace and interests. In this way, they will explore their own potential and the legend. 


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Lesson Plan Template

 

Subject and Grade: ---------------------------

Unit: ---------------------           Topic: ---------------------    

Duration/ No of Periods: ---------------------------------------

Students’ Learning Outcomes: -----------------------------------

(from the curriculum)

Students may be able to;

        ·         ----------------------------------------------

        ·        ---------------------------------------------- 

 

Information for Teachers:

       ·         Key points that teacher needs to know for teaching the concept

       ·        The concept maps that may help teachers to communicate the knowledge and skills                        effectively


Material Resources: ----------------------------------

Introduction:

One or two warm up activities and/or questions related to students’ previous knowledge about the concept


Development:

2-3 activities to teach the concept


Sum up/ Conclusion

Revision of key points/ brief summary to help students organize the information in their minds


Assessment:

       ·         Variety of techniques for effective assessment

       ·         Questions that teacher can use to evaluate the learning of the students


Follow Up:

       ·         Enrichment Activities

       ·         Home work

       ·         Projects

      ·         Text Book Questions


 

Lesson Plan Template

Watch this video for more explanation.



Role of Motivation in Teaching and Learning

 Definitions

According to Mathis and Jackson, motivation is an emotion or desire operating on a person’s will and causing that person to act.

According to Berelson and Steiner, it is an inner state that activates or moves. Motivation involves effort, persistence and goals.

Jones states that motivation is concerned with how behavior gets started, is energized, is sustained, is directed, is stopped and what kind of subjective reaction is present in the organism while all this is going on.

According to Kelly, motivation ‘has to do with the forces that maintain and alter the direction, quality and intensity of behavior.

According to Mondy, Holmes and Flippa, motivation is the process of influencing or stimulating a person to take action that will accomplish desired goal

Importance and Types of Motivation

Motivation plays a very important role in teaching and learning. Because, until the students are not ready, it is impossible to make them learn anything. Though, its output is not concrete one and it is difficult to measure it quantitatively, but it can be integrated into every aspect of teaching and learning. Before we discuss it further, it is necessary to know two different types of motivation. These two types of motivation are:

1- Intrinsic Motivation

2- Extrinsic motivation

1- Intrinsic Motivation

Intrinsic motivation is the one which emerges from inside, feeling the importance of something and consequently, doing that task willfully. For this type of motivation, a lot of effort is required on the part of teacher, and he needs to very skillful and expert in this. This type of motivation is long lasting and becomes permanent part of one’s personality. For this type of motivation, no physical resources are required. For example, it can be aroused just by giving positive and constructive feedback or making your lesson more comprehensive. It can also be produced by presenting the importance of desired task in daily life.

2- Extrinsic motivation

Extrinsic motivation is produced through some worldly desires or temporary benefits such as money, gifts etc. It is also important type of motivation and can help us in such situations where we feel that it is difficult to produce intrinsic motivation. So, the right and timely use of both types of motivation can make our teaching successful and fruitful.

Some people also categorize motivation as positive and negative but I take it as unnecessary and just as a sake of making more types of motivation. Only positive and negative feedbacks have different effects on motivation. 

Famous Theories of Motivation

  • Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
  • Herzberg’s two factor theory
  • Alderfer’s ERG theory
  • Self-determination theory
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Assessment and the teacher's needs

 Assessment is very important element of education. It not only checks the progress of the student's learning but it also enhances their ability to learn different things. But to get full benefits of assessment, one needs to an expert at assessment. It is equally beneficial for both  teachers and students. So, the role of assessment is very diverse in education. 

For teachers, assessment play a very important role for their own reflection. On the regular basis, they can check how far they are successful in achieving the objectives of their lessons. Assessment can help them modify their lessons and plan for the future lessons. So, the teachers should integrate assessment in their own reflection. 

For students, assessment is a very important reflection of their learning but it all depends how they carry out assessment and how they provide feedback on student's work. It can both way, constructive or destructive. A construction and productive feedback can ease the motivation of the students whereas a negative feedback can hinder the progress of the students, and can demotivate them. It all depends on their expertise in providing feedback. Assessment not only monitors the progress of the students but also speed up their progress. 

To get the full benefits of assessment, teachers should be expert in these areas:

First and the most important thing is to be familiar with the concept of assessment and its types. As there are different types of assessment like summative, formative, diagnostic and placement etc, two of these are very important for a teacher to know deeply. Each of these have different roles. So, unless the teacher does know the roles of each type of assessment can not fully benefited from assessment. In some schools or area of the world, the focus is more on summative assessment which only judges the ability of students unlike formative assessment which serves the wide purposes rather than mere judgments. Formative assessment not only checks the progress of the students but also increases their understanding of the certain topics. So, the teacher's expertise in assessment is very important. 

Secondly, the teachers should be expert in educational measurement which is the very important step of assessment. Measurement provides the different ways and the tools of collecting data for feedback and discussion. Different tools of assessment are tests, quizzes, worksheets, assignments and  projects etc. Teacher should know how to prepare a measurement tool to cater different ability groups of students. They should also know how to develop concept oriented measurement rather than simply measuring the memories of the students. For this purpose, they need to know different taxonomies of learning objectives. One of the most beneficial and widely used taxonomy is Bloom Taxonomy. It provides a systematic framework for all the three domains of human development i.e. physical, moral and mental. 

In short, assessment is one of the major elements of educational process and without knowing and getting expert in the all above given areas of assessment, a teacher can not get full benefits of the process of assessment. 


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Factors which make training motivating and successful

 

Following are the three most important factors which make training motivating successful.

Building  Rapport

          Building Rapport is the first and very important step in making training motivating and successful. It will make the behavior of the participants positive and constructive. Once the rapport is build up, you can derive the things as you can. You can carry out your activities smoothly and effectively. They will participate in the activities actively. They will share their ideas eagerly and enthusiastically. There will be a feeling of mutual cooperation, not only between trainer and participants but also among participants. They will also cooperate each other so that learning will be effective and everyone will share the benefit of it.  

Effective Instructions

          The second most important thing is instructions. If the instructions are clear and comprehensible, half of the job is done as far as managing the activity is concerned. So, the instructions should be clear, brief and comprehensible so that participants of all levels can understand well. Effective instructions can lead to successful management of an activity. It enhances the chances of achievement of learning outcomes. The involvement of participants will be high in the activity. There  will be no communication gap and rapport will be established not only between trainer and participants and also  among participants.

Constructive feedback

          The third most important thing is constructive feedback. Constructive feedback is like an investment for a better future. Constructive feedback has multiple effects on the receiving person. Constructive feedback can boost confidence of learners. Their motivation level will be increased. Once their confident is raised, it can lead to their valuable participation in the course. They will not feel hesitant to share their ideas. They will start thinking positively and constructively. It will also have a positive effect on their behavior. It can also help in building rapport. Learning will be accelerated and become effective. Constructive feedback provides a valuable reflection for further planning.

All these factors when join together make the training motivating and effective to a great deal. 






Roles of a Teacher Educator

 Following are some of the roles of a teacher educator.

Facilitator

       This role of trainer is very important because it makes the training effective and run smoothly. As a facilitator, one can ensure more active participation of trainees in learning, activities and discussions. It also helps in motivating the learners. Once they get proper facilitation, they will be more motivated and involved in learning. He leads the trainees towards productive conclusion and outcomes of the particular training. He focuses all the aspects of learning including physical, mental and moral, so that effective and productive learning takes place. Good facilitation provided by the trainer helps to develop good rapport between trainer and trainees which leads to effective learning and development. Without Proper facilitation, training will become hectic and burdensome for the trainees. Consequently, they will lose the interest and it will be difficult to achieve the learning outcomes of the training. So a trainer should know the importance of his role as a facilitator.

Mentor

       Mentoring is also very important in training context. Teachers feel good and comfortable when they receive guidance and assistance from a person who is more expert and experienced than them. As a mentor, one can develop a good professional liaison with the teachers which can encourage them to share their problems with the mentor. Trainees will not feel any hesitation in sharing their experiences with the trainer. Subsequently, they will be able to get better solutions to their problems. Trainer as a mentor can play a vital role in making trainees realize their improvement areas. Once the improvement areas are identified, he can guide to find solutions to their problems using their strengths. It will create a feeling of achievement and success in the mind of trainees and their motivation level will be increased. Ultimately, it will make the training effective.

Planner

           Without good planning, it is impossible to carry out effective and successful training sessions. If you plan well, it means half of the job is done. You feel more confident and comfortable as a trainer, if you have planned properly. Things would not happen in haphazard. You can also manage the time well. It would be helpful in achieving learning outcomes. A trainer plans all activities keeping in mind the learning outcomes and level of his learners. This makes training more effective and productive. If there is no proper planning, everything will happen in a haphazard. You will not be able to carry out all the activities within time. Effective learning will not take place. As trainees are adults, they will immediately notice the situation and then they will lose the interest in the activities. Once they will be off task, it would be difficult to make them on task. So trainer s’ planning role is central to effective and successful training. 






Bloom Taxonomy

In 1956, Benjamin Bloom presented this taxonomy. According to him, there are three aspects  (domains) of human development.

1- Cognitive      (mental)
2- Affective       (moral)
3- Psychomotor  (physical)

Further, he categorizes the cognitive domain into six stages. These stages are arranged here from low level thinking to high level thinking. Low level thinking includes first three stages and high level thinking includes the last three stages.

1- Knowledge
2- Comprehension
3- Application
4- Analysis
5- Synthesis
6- Evaluation

Revised Bloom Taxonomy

Revised Bloom Taxonomy was presented by Anderson and Kratwohl in 2001. They changed  the names of stages of cognitive domain into action verbs as learning objectives start by a verb. They also placed 'creating' at the highest level of thinking than 'evaluating'.




Knowledge                 →      Remembering

Comprehension     →       Understanding

Application                               Applying

Analysis                                Analysing

 Synthesis                  ↘              Evaluating

Evaluation                 ↗                 Creating

Note: Last two stages replaced their position with each other making synthesis (creating)  more high cognitive ability than Evaluation (evaluating).

Implications of Bloom taxonomy

Some very useful implications of bloom taxonomy are:

1- Bloom Taxonomy is very important in the development of  SLOs (student learning outcomes). Teacher can set the difficulty level of SLOs according to desired level using different action verbs like "know, define, identify, use, make" with the help of bloom taxonomy.

2- Bloom Taxonomy is equally important in item development in the process of assessment in the same way as it helps in the SLOs development. Teacher can include questions of different level of cognitive aspect using different action verbs such as define, elaborate, apply, make, suggest etc. 

3- As there are individual differences among learners, activities can be developed and varied from low difficulty level to high difficulty level, keeping in mind the different levels of  Bloom taxonomy. 

Online Teaching Tools

In the present scenario, when there is a lock down in the whole world due to corona virus, online teaching is the only and the best solution for the teachers and the students to continue the learning process. In online teaching, one do not need to be physically present in the classroom but a virtual classroom is used using a computer and internet. But for this, a teacher needs to be have some knowledge of computer applications like MS Office, PDF etc. to build materials and presentations for online teaching. Another important thing to know is the suitable applications for online teaching. These are two of the best online teaching applications:


ZOOM  Zoom Video Communications, Inc. is an American communications company whose headquarter is in San Jose, California. It is one of the best platform for videotelephony and online chat services through a cloud-based peer-to-peer software platform and is widely used for teleconferencing, telecommuting, distance education and learning.
 
Skype   Skype is a leading telecommunications platform that aims at providing video chat and voice calls between different computers, tablets, mobile devices, the Xbox One console, and smartwatches through the Internet. Skype also gives instant messaging services. People can transmit text, video, audio and images. Skype also provides video conference calls.

MEET    Google Meet is a video-communication platform launched by Google. It is one of the best alternative to other online platforms to deliver or receive education. It is equally useful as other platforms are.

Teams    It is a great online  business communication platform developed by Microsoft offering workspace chat and videoconferencing, file storage, and application integration. This online tool aims at replacing other Microsoft-operated business messaging and collaboration platforms, such as Skype for Business and Microsoft Classroom. During the COVID-19 pandemic, Teams has proved much useful as many meetings have shifted to a virtual environment.

Some of the other applications to support online teaching are:

Edmodo is the place where you can keep in touch with your students individually and in groups, and can share resources, assessments and grades etc.

Kahoot is the game like plate form to engage students in learning. You can make quizzes to support learning.

Quizlet provides you opportunity to make flash cards, games and other learning tools free.

Schoology is the connecting plate form for K-12 students to keep touch with their leaning.

Mentimeter is an interesting plate form to get feedback in the form of voting.




Student Learning Outcomes (SLOs)

Student Learning Outcomes are the first and the most important step of lesson planning and its implementation in the classroom. SLOs are the statements which tell about the objectives of the lesson. It tells the teacher and the students about their destination. All other steps and activities of lesson planning take lead from Student Learning Outcomes.

A Student Learning Outcome is best described by a mnemonic 'SMART' :

S   → Specific 
M → Measurable
A  → Achievable
R  → Realistic
T  → Time Bound


Specific means that a  SLO should be clear, to the point and relevant to the topic. 

Measurable means that it can be assessed through some reliable assessment tools.

Achievable in a sense that it can be achieved in the classroom in the reasonable time span. 

Realistic means that it should be according to the level of the students. 

Time Bound means that it can be managed in the reasonable time frame.

Bloom Taxonomy can be very helpful in developing good SLOs . Keeping in mind different levels of Bloom Taxonomy, one can develop SLOs according to the desired difficulty level and according to the desired aspect of learning skill. Each SLO should start from an action verb such as define, describe, identify, apply, make, compare, evaluate keeping in mind the different levels of Bloom Taxonomy.

So, a good SLO should have all the above mentioned traits in it.

Some examples of SLOs are:

Students will be able to

* identify different types of adjectives.
* define adverb.
* make questions in simple present tense. 

Video Description